Optimum satellite remote sensing of the marine carbonate system using empirical algorithms in the global ocean, the Greater Caribbean, the Amazon Plume and the Bay of Bengal

Type Article
Date 2019-12
Language English
Author(s) Land Peter E.1, Findlay Helen S.1, Shutler Jamie D.2, Ashton Ian2, Holding Thomas2, Grouazel AntoineORCID3, Girard-Ardhuin FannyORCID3, Reul NicolasORCID3, Piolle Jean-Francois3, Chapron BertrandORCID3, Quilfen YvesORCID3, Bellerby Richard G.J.4, 5, Bhadury Punyasloke6, Salisbury Joseph7, Vandemark Douglas7, Sabia Roberto8
Affiliation(s) 1 : Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, West Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
2 : University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK
3 : Ifremer, University Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), IUEM, F-29280, Brest, France
4 : SKLEC-NIVA Centre for Marine and Coastal Research, State Key Laboratory for Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University Zhongshan N. Road, 3663, Shanghai, 200062, China
5 : Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Thormølensgate 53D, N-5006, Bergen, Norway
6 : Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, 741 246, West Bengal, India
7 : Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 3824, United States
8 : Telespazio-Vega U.K. for European Space Agency (ESA), ESRIN, Frascati, Italy
Source Remote Sensing Of Environment (0034-4257) (Elsevier BV), 2019-12 , Vol. 235 , P. 111469 (15p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2019.111469
WOS© Times Cited 17
Keyword(s) Carbonate chemistry, Earth observation, Ocean acidification, Total alkalinity, Dissolved inorganic carbon, SMOS, Aquarius, CORA, HadGEM2-ES

Improving our ability to monitor ocean carbonate chemistry has become a priority as the ocean continues to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This long-term uptake is reducing the ocean pH; a process commonly known as ocean acidification. The use of satellite Earth Observation has not yet been thoroughly explored as an option for routinely observing surface ocean carbonate chemistry, although its potential has been highlighted. We demonstrate the suitability of using empirical algorithms to calculate total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT), assessing the relative performance of satellite, interpolated in situ, and climatology datasets in reproducing the wider spatial patterns of these two variables. Both AT and CT in situ data are reproducible, both regionally and globally, using salinity and temperature datasets, with satellite observed salinity from Aquarius and SMOS providing performance comparable to other datasets for the majority of case studies. Global root mean squared difference (RMSD) between in situ validation data and satellite estimates is 17 μmol kg−1 with bias  < 5 μmol kg−1 for AT and 30 μmol kg−1 with bias  < 10 μmol kg−1 for CT. This analysis demonstrates that satellite sensors provide a credible solution for monitoring surface synoptic scale AT and CT. It also enables the first demonstration of observation-based synoptic scale AT and CT temporal mixing in the Amazon plume for 2010–2016, complete with a robust estimation of their uncertainty.

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Land Peter E., Findlay Helen S., Shutler Jamie D., Ashton Ian, Holding Thomas, Grouazel Antoine, Girard-Ardhuin Fanny, Reul Nicolas, Piolle Jean-Francois, Chapron Bertrand, Quilfen Yves, Bellerby Richard G.J., Bhadury Punyasloke, Salisbury Joseph, Vandemark Douglas, Sabia Roberto (2019). Optimum satellite remote sensing of the marine carbonate system using empirical algorithms in the global ocean, the Greater Caribbean, the Amazon Plume and the Bay of Bengal. Remote Sensing Of Environment, 235, 111469 (15p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111469 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00591/70267/