Genetic and morphological divergence in the warm-water planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides

Type Article
Date 2019-12
Language English
Author(s) Morard Raphaël1, Füllberg Angelina2, Brummer Geert-Jan A.3, Greco Mattia4, Jonkers Lukas5, Wizemann André6, Weiner Agnes K. M.7, Darling Kate8, Siccha Michael9, Ledevin Ronan10, Kitazato Hiroshi11, de Garidel-Thoron Thibault12, de Vargas Colomban13, Kucera Michal14
Affiliation(s) 1 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
2 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
3 : NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, and Utrecht University, Den Burg, and Utrecht University, The Netherlands, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
5 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
6 : Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Bremen, Germany
7 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany, Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States of America
8 : School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, School of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
9 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
10 : UMR5199 PACEA, Université de Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Pessac, France
11 : Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
12 : Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, INRA, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence, France
13 : Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Station Biologique de Roscoff, UMR 7144, ECOMAP, Roscoff, France, Research Federation for the Study of Global Ocean Systems Ecology and Evolution, FR2022/Tara GOSEE, Paris, France
14 : MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, Bremen, Germany
Source Plos One (1932-6203) (Public Library of Science (PLoS)), 2019-12 , Vol. 14 , N. 12 , P. e0225246 (30p.)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0225246
WOS© Times Cited 9
Abstract

The planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides provides a prime example of a species-rich genus in which genetic and morphological divergence are uncorrelated. To shed light on the evolutionary processes that lead to the present-day diversity of Globigerinoides, we investigated the genetic, ecological and morphological divergence of its constituent species. We assembled a global collection of single-cell barcode sequences and show that the genus consists of eight distinct genetic types organized in five extant morphospecies. Based on morphological evidence, we reassign the species Globoturborotalita tenella to Globigerinoides and amend Globigerinoides ruber by formally proposing two new subspecies, G. ruber albus n.subsp. and G. ruber ruber in order to express their subspecies level distinction and to replace the informal G. ruber “white” and G. ruber “pink”, respectively. The genetic types within G. ruber and Globigerinoides elongatus show a combination of endemism and coexistence, with little evidence for ecological differentiation. CT-scanning and ontogeny analysis reveal that the diagnostic differences in adult morphologies could be explained by alterations of the ontogenetic trajectories towards final (reproductive) size. This indicates that heterochrony may have caused the observed decoupling between genetic and morphological diversification within the genus. We find little evidence for environmental forcing of either the genetic or the morphological diversification, which allude to biotic interactions such as symbiosis, as the driver of speciation in Globigerinoides.

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Publisher's official version 30 5 MB Open access
S1 Fig. Light microscopy images of the specimen CA1261 identified as Globigerinoides tenellus and from which sequence match the type IIb of Aurahs et al [26,27]. 5 MB Open access
S2 Fig. Light microscopy images of the holotype of (C319) and paratypes (C208, C281, C329) of G. ruber albus n.subsp. 8 MB Open access
S1 Table. Metadata and taxonomy of the Sanger sequences used in the study. 229 KB Open access
S2 Table. Taxonomic equivalence between the existing taxonomic nomenclatures proposed in the literature and our updated molecular taxonomy. 11 KB Open access
S3 Table. Volume, Cartesian coordinates and parameters of the Raup’s model measured on individual chambers of the five selected morphological species (Figs 9 and 10). 31 KB Open access
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Morard Raphaël, Füllberg Angelina, Brummer Geert-Jan A., Greco Mattia, Jonkers Lukas, Wizemann André, Weiner Agnes K. M., Darling Kate, Siccha Michael, Ledevin Ronan, Kitazato Hiroshi, de Garidel-Thoron Thibault, de Vargas Colomban, Kucera Michal (2019). Genetic and morphological divergence in the warm-water planktonic foraminifera genus Globigerinoides. Plos One, 14(12), e0225246 (30p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225246 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00595/70719/