Particulate Rare Earth Element behavior in the North Atlantic (GEOVIDE cruise)
|Author(s)||Lagarde Marion1, Lemaitre Nolwenn2, Planquette Helene3, Grenier Mélanie1, Belhadj Moustafa1, Lherminier Pascale4, Jeandel Catherine1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : LEGOS, University of Toulouse, CNRS, CNES, IRD, UPS, 5 Toulouse, 31400, France
2 : ETH, Zurich, IGP, Zurich, Switzerland
3 : LEMAR, University of Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Plouzané, 29280, France
4 : LOPS, Ifremer,CNRS,IRD,UBO, Ifremer, Plouzané, 29280, France
|Source||Biogeosciences (1726-4170) (Copernicus GmbH), 2020-11 , Vol. 17 , N. 22 , P. 5539-5561|
Particulate concentrations of the fourteen Rare Earth Elements (PREE), yttrium and 232-thorium have been measured in two hundred samples collected in the epipelagic (ca. 0–200 m) and the mesopelagic (ca. 200–1000 m) zones of the North Atlantic, during the GEOVIDE cruise (May/June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas ?, GEOTRACES GA01). Particulate cerium (PCe) concentrations vary from 0.2 pmol L−1 to 16 pmol L−1, particulate neodymium (PNd) ones from 0.09 pmol L−1 to 6.1 pmol L−1 and particulate ytterbium (PYb) ones from 0.01 pmol L−1 to 0.5 pmol L−1. PREE concentrations are higher close to the Iberian margin and on the Greenland shelf, where PREE concentrations normalized to Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) display a positive Ce anomaly between 0.3 and 3, and a light REE (LREE) enrichment compared to heavy REE (HREE) illustrated by high PNdN/PYbN ratios (normalized to PAAS). The lithogenic fraction of the particulate REE concentration is closely related to the margin morphology and the hydrodynamic context: off the Iberian margin, up to 100 % of the PREEs are lithogenic and this lithogenic input spreads westward along isopycnals as intermediate nepheloid layers (INL) up to 1700 km away. Lithogenic inputs are also observed along the Greenland and Newfoundland margins, although the circulation stacks them along the coasts. PREE distributions are also controlled by the biological uptake in the surface layers and remineralization processes deeper. Low surface concentrations and some normalized REE patterns displaying a negative Ce anomaly and HREE enrichment indicate freshly formed biogenic particles. A significant relationship between biogenic silica (BSi) and PHREE is also observed in the diatom blooms occurring in the Labrador and Irminger seas. PHo/PY ratio was calculated in order to identify processes independent of the ionic radius. However, we could not firmly assess the role of the iron hydroxides in the scavenging prates of these elements.