Biomarkers as tools for monitoring within the Water Framework Directive context: concept, opinions and advancement of expertise
|Author(s)||Milinkovitch Thomas1, Geffard Olivier2, Geffard Alain3, Mouneyrac Catherine4, Chaumot Arnaud2, Xuereb Benoit5, Fisson Cedric6, Minier Christophe5, Auffret Michel7, Perceval Olivier8, Egea Emilie1, Sanchez Wilfried1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Fdn ROVALTAIN, F-26300 Alixan, France.
2 : Ctr Lyon Villeurbanne, Irstea, UR RiverLy, Lab Ecotoxicol, F-69625 Villeurbanne, France.
3 : URCA, UMR I 02, SEBIO Stress Environm & Biosurveillance Milieux A, Reims, France.
4 : Univ Catholique Ouest, Fac Sci, MMS, EA2160, 3 Pl Andre Leroy, F-49000 Angers, France.
5 : Univ Normandie, SCALE, CNRS, UMR I 02,SEBIO,FR 3730, F-76600 Le Havre, France.
6 : GIP Seine Aval, 115 Blvd Europe, F-76100 Rouen, France.
7 : Inst Univ Europeen Mer, LEMAR, UMR, Brest, France.
8 : Agence Francaise Biodiversite, F-94300 Paris, France.
|Source||Environmental Science And Pollution Research (0944-1344) (Springer Heidelberg), 2019-11 , Vol. 26 , N. 32 , P. 32759-32763|
|WOS© Times Cited||8|
|Keyword(s)||Biomarkers, Ecotoxicology, Water Framework Directive, Biomonitoring strategy, Contaminants|
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) currently supports chemical and ecological monitoring programmes in order to achieve the good water surface status. Although chemical and ecological assessments are necessary, they have some limitations. Chemical approaches focus on certain substances identified as priorities, but they do not take into account other potentially harmful substances and also ignore the hazards related to contaminant cocktails. On the other hand, while ecological approaches provide holistic information on the impairment of biological communities in ecosystems, they do not distinguish the role of contaminants in these alterations, and consequently do not allow the establishment of contaminant impact reduction plans. Consequently, ecotoxicologists suggest the use of effect-based tools such as biomarkers. Biomarkers highlight the effect of potentially harmful substances (or a cocktail), and their specificity towards the chemicals makes it possible to properly discriminate the role of toxicants within biological community impairments. Thus, the integration of such tools (besides existing chemical and ecological tools) in the WFD could considerably improve its biomonitoring strategy. The B n' B project (Biomarkers and Biodiversity) exposes key objectives that will allow to (i) establish an inventory of the biomarkers developed by French laboratories; (ii) determine their methodological advancement and limits and, on this basis, formulate recommendations for biomonitoring use and future research needs; (iii) discuss the biomarkers' ecological significance, specificity to contaminants and interpretation capacity; (iv) establish, in fine, a selection of valuable biomarkers to enter the WFD; and (iv) propose integrative tools to facilitate the decision-taking by stakeholders.