Towards a marine strategy for the deep Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of current ecological status

Type Article
Date 2020-02
Language English
Author(s) Danovaro R.1, 2, Fanelli E.1, Canals M.3, Ciuffardi T.4, Fabri Marie-Claire5, Taviani M.2, 6, 7, Argyrou M.8, Azzurro E.2, 9, Bianchelli S.1, Cantafaro A.10, Carugati L.1, Corinaldesi C.11, de Haan W.P.3, Dell’anno A.1, Evans J.10, Foglini F.6, Galil B.12, Gianni M.13, Goren M.12, Greco S.2, Grimalt J.14, Güell-Bujons Q.3, Jadaud Angelique15, Knittweis L.10, Lopez J.L.14, Sanchez-Vidal A.3, Schembri P.J.10, Snelgrove P.16, Vaz SandrineORCID15, Angeletti L.17, Barsanti M.18, Borg J.A.19, Bosso M.18, Brind'Amour Anik20, Castellan G.17, Conte F.18, Delbono I.18, Galgani FrancoisORCID20, Morgana G.18, Prato S.18, Schirone A.18, Soldevila E.21
Affiliation(s) 1 : Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131, Ancona, Italy
2 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Naples, 80122, Naples, Italy
3 : CRG Marine Geosciences, Department of Earth and Ocean Dynamics, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain
4 : Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Department for Sustainability, S. Teresa Marine Environment Research Centre, 19100, La Spezia, Italy
5 : Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la Mer (Ifremer), Département Océanographie et Dynamique des Ecosystèmes, 83500, La Seyne sur Mer, France
6 : Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR), CNR, 40129, Bologna, Italy
7 : Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA, 02543, USA
8 : Department of Fisheries and Marine Research (DFMR), 1416, Nicosia, Cyprus
9 : Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) STS Livorno, 57122, Italy
10 : Department of Biology, University of Malta, Msida, MSD2080, Malta
11 : Department of Sciences and Engineering of the Materials, Environment and Urban Planning, Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy
12 : The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Israel National Center for Biodiversity Studies, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel
13 : Deep Sea Conservation Coalition, Postbus, 59681, Amsterdam, Netherlands
14 : Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), 08034, Barcelona, Spain
15 : UMR Marbec, Ifremer, IRD, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, 34203, Sète Cedex, France
16 : Departments of Ocean Sciences and Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1C 5S7 ,Canada
17 : Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR), CNR, 40129, Bologna, Italy
18 : Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Department for Sustainability, S. Teresa Marine Environment Research Centre, 19100, La Spezia, Italy
19 : Department of Biology, University of Malta, Msida, MSD2080, Malta
20 : Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la Mer (Ifremer), Département Océanographie et Dynamique des Ecosystèmes, 83500, La Seyne sur Mer, France
21 : CRG Marine Geosciences, Department of Earth and Ocean Dynamics, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain
Source Marine Policy (0308-597X) (Elsevier BV), 2020-02 , Vol. 112 , P. 103781 (18p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103781
WOS© Times Cited 15
Keyword(s) Marine strategy framework directive, Deep-sea ecosystems, Mediterranean basin
Abstract

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), introduced in June 2008, was adopted to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) in the EU's marine waters and to protect resources of socio-economic interest. The MSFD exerts to the marine area over which a Member State exercises jurisdictional rights in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), including the deep-sea waters, seafloor and sub-seafloor of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). However, currently the MSFD focuses on coastal habitats and the shallow-water seafloor to the detriment of the deeper habitats. Despite the huge dimension of the deep sea (below 200 m of depth) covering more than 65% of the Earth's surface and including >95% of the global biosphere, the relevance of the dark portion of the seas and oceans is still almost completely neglected. Given the important bi-directional links between shallow and deep ecosystems, there is a clear need for extending the implementation of the MSFD into the deep sea, to define a sound ecosystem-based approach for the management and protection of deep-sea ecosystems and attain GES. We assembled data on drivers, anthropogenic pressures and impacts concerning the MSFD descriptors pertaining to the Mediterranean deep sea. We list deep-sea monitoring activities and the main sources providing benchmark conditions, and discuss knowledge and geographic coverage gaps. MSFD descriptors apply to the deep sea as to coastal waters, and ought to be monitored contemporaneously. We provide recommendations for guidelines for future deep-sea monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Danovaro R., Fanelli E., Canals M., Ciuffardi T., Fabri Marie-Claire, Taviani M., Argyrou M., Azzurro E., Bianchelli S., Cantafaro A., Carugati L., Corinaldesi C., de Haan W.P., Dell’anno A., Evans J., Foglini F., Galil B., Gianni M., Goren M., Greco S., Grimalt J., Güell-Bujons Q., Jadaud Angelique, Knittweis L., Lopez J.L., Sanchez-Vidal A., Schembri P.J., Snelgrove P., Vaz Sandrine, Angeletti L., Barsanti M., Borg J.A., Bosso M., Brind'Amour Anik, Castellan G., Conte F., Delbono I., Galgani Francois, Morgana G., Prato S., Schirone A., Soldevila E. (2020). Towards a marine strategy for the deep Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of current ecological status. Marine Policy, 112, 103781 (18p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103781 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00609/72110/