Latitude, temperature, and habitat complexity predict predation pressure in eelgrass beds across the Northern Hemisphere
|Author(s)||Reynolds Pamela L.1, 2, 3, Stachowicz John J.2, Hovel Kevin4, Bostrom Christoffer5, Boyer Katharyn6, Cusson Mathieu7, Eklof Johan S.8, Engel Friederike G.9, 10, Engelen Aschwin H.11, Eriksson Britas Klemens9, Fodrie F. Joel12, Griffin John N.13, Hereu Clara M.14, Hori Masakazu15, Hanley Torrance C.16, Ivanov Mikhail17, Jorgensen Pablo14, 18, Kruschel Claudia19, Lee Kun-Seop20, McGlathery Karen21, Moksnes Per-Olav22, Nakaoka Masahiro23, O'Connor Mary I.24, O'Connor Nessa E.25, Orth Robert J.3, Rossi Francesca26, Ruesink Jennifer27, Sotka Erik E.28, Thormar Jonas29, Tomas Fiona30, 31, Unsworth Richard K. F.13, Whalen Matthew A.2, Duffy J. Emmett3, 32|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Calif Davis, Data Sci Initiat, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
2 : Univ Calif Davis, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
3 : Coll William & Mary, Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
4 : San Diego State Univ, Coastal & Marine Inst, Dept Biol, San Diego, CA 92182 USA.
5 : Abo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
6 : San Francisco State Univ, San Francisco, CA 94132 USA.
7 : Univ Quebec Chicoutimi, Quebec City, PQ G7H 2B1, Canada.
8 : Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
9 : Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
10 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Kiel, Germany.
11 : Univ Algarve, CCMAR, Faro, Portugal.
12 : Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, Inst Marine Sci, Morehead City, NC 28557 USA.
13 : Swansea Univ, Coll Sci, Singleton Pk, Swansea SA2 8PP, W Glam, Wales.
14 : Univ Autonoma Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
15 : Japan Fisheries Res & Educ Agcy FRA, Natl Res Inst Fisheries & Environm Inland Sea FEI, Hiroshima 7390452, Japan.
16 : Northeastern Univ, Ctr Marine Sci, Nahant, MA 01908 USA.
17 : St Petersburg State Univ, St Petersburg, Russia.
18 : Geomare, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
19 : Univ Zadar, Zadar, Croatia.
20 : Pusan Natl Univ, Busan, South Korea.
21 : Univ Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA.
22 : Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
23 : Hokkaido Univ, Field Sci Ctr Northern Biosphere, Akkeshi Marine Stn, Akkeshi, Hokkaido 0881113, Japan.
24 : Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
25 : Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
26 : Univ Montpellier, CNRS, UMR 9190 MARBEC, Montpellier, France.
27 : Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
28 : Coll Charleston, Charleston, SC 29412 USA.
29 : Inst Marine Res, Bergen, Norway.
30 : Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.
31 : CSIC, Illes Balears UIB, Inst Mediterraneo Estudios Avanzados, Palma De Mallorca, Spain.
32 : Smithsonian Inst, Tennenbaum Marine Observ Network, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
|Source||Ecology (0012-9658) (Wiley), 2018-01 , Vol. 99 , N. 1 , P. 29-35|
|WOS© Times Cited||36|
|Keyword(s)||biogeography, latitude, mesograzer, predation, seagrass, species interactions, temperature, Zostera|
Latitudinal gradients in species interactions are widely cited as potential causes or consequences of global patterns of biodiversity. However, mechanistic studies documenting changes in interactions across broad geographic ranges are limited. We surveyed predation intensity on common prey (live amphipods and gastropods) in communities of eelgrass (Zostera marina) at 48 sites across its Northern Hemisphere range, encompassing over 37 degrees of latitude and four continental coastlines. Predation on amphipods declined with latitude on all coasts but declined more strongly along western ocean margins where temperature gradients are steeper. Whereas insitu water temperature at the time of the experiments was uncorrelated with predation, mean annual temperature strongly positively predicted predation, suggesting a more complex mechanism than simply increased metabolic activity at the time of predation. This large-scale biogeographic pattern was modified by local habitat characteristics; predation declined with higher shoot density both among and within sites. Predation rates on gastropods, by contrast, were uniformly low and varied little among sites. The high replication and geographic extent of our study not only provides additional evidence to support biogeographic variation in predation intensity, but also insight into the mechanisms that relate temperature and biogeographic gradients in species interactions.