Sea surface salinity estimates from spaceborne L-band radiometers: An overview of the first decade of observation (2010–2019)

Type Article
Date 2020-06
Language English
Author(s) Reul NicolasORCID1, Grodsky S.A.13, Arias M.6, Boutin J.2, Catany R.6, Chapron Bertrand1, D'Amico F6, Dinnat E.12, Donlon C.15, Fore A.10, Fournier Severine10, Guimbard Sebastien4, Hasson A.2, Kolodziejczyk NicolasORCID16, Lagerloef G.9, Lee T.10, Le Vine D.M.12, Lindstrom E.14, Maes Christophe17, Mecklenburg S.8, Meissner T.11, Olmedo E.3, Sabia R.7, Tenerelli Joseph4, Thouvenin-Masson C.2, Turiel A.3, Vergely J.L.5, Vinogradova N.11, Wentz F.14, Yueh S.10
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, Univ. Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), IUEM, Brest, France
2 : Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IRD, MNHN, Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat: Expérimentations et Approches Numériques (LOCEAN), Paris, France
3 : Institut de Ciencies del Mar -CMIMA (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
4 : OCEANDATALAB, Brest, France
5 : ACRI-st, Guyancourt, France
6 : ARGANS, Plymouth, UK
7 : Telespazio-Vega UK Ltd for ESA, ESRIN, Frascati, Italy
8 : European Space Agency, ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy
9 : Earth and Space Research, Seattle, WA, USA
10 : NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
11 : Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA, USA
12 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
13 : Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
14 : NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, USA
15 : European Space Agency, ESA-ESTEC, Netherlands
16 : Ifremer, Univ. Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), IUEM, Brest, France
17 : Ifremer, Univ. Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), IUEM, Brest, France
Source Remote Sensing Of Environment (0034-4257) (Elsevier BV), 2020-06 , Vol. 242 , P. 111769 (37p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2020.111769
WOS© Times Cited 3
Keyword(s) Sea surface salinity, Ocean microwave remote sensing, Radiometer, L-band, SMOS, Aquarius/SAC-D, SMAP
Abstract

Operated since the end of 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission is the first orbiting radiometer that collects regular and global observations from space of two Essential Climate Variables of the Global Climate Observing System: Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and Soil Moisture. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius mission, with the primary objective to provide global SSS measurements from space operated from mid-2011 to mid-2015. NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission, primarily dedicated to soil moisture measurements, but also monitoring SSS, has been operating since early 2015. The primary sensors onboard these three missions are passive microwave radiometers operating at 1.4 GHz (L-band). SSS is retrieved from radiometer measurements of the sea surface brightness temperature (TB). In this paper, we first provide a historical review of SSS remote sensing with passive L-band radiometry beginning with the discussions of measurement principles, technology, sensing characteristics and complementarities of the three aforementioned missions. The assessment of satellite SSS products is then presented in terms of individual mission characteristics, common algorithms, and measurement uncertainties, including the validation versus in situ data, and, the consideration of sampling differences between satellite SSS and in situ salinity measurements. We next review the major scientific achievements of the combined first 10 years of satellite SSS data, including the insights enabled by these measurements regarding the linkages of SSS with the global water cycle, climate variability, and ocean biochemistry. We also highlight the new ability provided by satellites to monitor mesoscale and synoptic-scale SSS features and to advance our understanding of SSS' role in air-sea interactions, constraining ocean models, and improving seasonal predictions. An overview of satellite SSS observation highlights during this first decade and upcoming challenges are then presented.

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Reul Nicolas, Grodsky S.A., Arias M., Boutin J., Catany R., Chapron Bertrand, D'Amico F, Dinnat E., Donlon C., Fore A., Fournier Severine, Guimbard Sebastien, Hasson A., Kolodziejczyk Nicolas, Lagerloef G., Lee T., Le Vine D.M., Lindstrom E., Maes Christophe, Mecklenburg S., Meissner T., Olmedo E., Sabia R., Tenerelli Joseph, Thouvenin-Masson C., Turiel A., Vergely J.L., Vinogradova N., Wentz F., Yueh S. (2020). Sea surface salinity estimates from spaceborne L-band radiometers: An overview of the first decade of observation (2010–2019). Remote Sensing Of Environment, 242, 111769 (37p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111769 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00615/72750/