Osmoregulation, bioenergetics and oxidative stress in coastal marine invertebrates: raising the questions for future research

Type Article
Date 2017-05
Language English
Author(s) Rivera-Ingraham Georgina A.ORCID1, Lignot Jehan-HerveORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Montpellier, UMR MARBEC 9190, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
Source Journal Of Experimental Biology (0022-0949) (Company Biologists Ltd), 2017-05 , Vol. 220 , N. 10 , P. 1749-1760
DOI 10.1242/jeb.135624
WOS© Times Cited 101
Keyword(s) Hyper-/hypo-osmoregulator, Hyper-/iso-osmoregulators, Osmoconformers, Antioxidants, Free radicals, Hypometabolism, Mitochondria

Osmoregulation is by no means an energetically cheap process, and its costs have been extensively quantified in terms of respiration and aerobic metabolism. Common products of mitochondrial activity are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may cause oxidative stress by degrading key cell components, while playing essential roles in cell homeostasis. Given the delicate equilibrium between pro- and antioxidants in fueling acclimation responses, the need for a thorough understanding of the relationship between salinity-induced oxidative stress and osmoregulation arises as an important issue, especially in the context of global changes and anthropogenic impacts on coastal habitats. This is especially urgent for intertidal/estuarine organisms, which may be subject to drastic salinity and habitat changes, leading to redox imbalance. How do osmoregulation strategies determine energy expenditure, and how do these processes affect organisms in terms of oxidative stress? What mechanisms are used to cope with salinity-induced oxidative stress? This Commentary aims to highlight the main gaps in our knowledge, covering all levels of organization. From an energy-redox perspective, we discuss the link between environmental salinity changes and physiological responses at different levels of biological organization. Future studies should seek to provide a detailed understanding of the relationship between osmoregulatory strategies and redox metabolism, thereby informing conservation physiologists and allowing them to tackle the new challenges imposed by global climate change.

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