Revival of ancient marine dinoflagellates using molecular biostimulation

Type Article
Date 2020-08
Language English
Author(s) Delebecq Gaspard1, Schmidt Sabine2, Ehrhold AxelORCID3, Latimier Marie4, Siano Raffaele4
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Brest, CNRS IRD, Ifremer, LEMAR F‐29280 Plouzané, France
2 : UMR5805 EPOC University of Bordeaux 33605 Pessac, France
3 : Ifremer, GM F‐29280 Plouzané ,France
4 : Ifremer, DYNECO F‐29280 Plouzané, France
Source Journal Of Phycology (0022-3646) (Wiley), 2020-08 , Vol. 56 , N. 4 , P. 1077-1089
DOI 10.1111/jpy.13010
WOS© Times Cited 12
Keyword(s) Alexandrium, cyst, dinoflagellate, gibberellic acid, melatonin, paleoecology, priming, Scrippsiella, resurrection ecology

The biological processes involved in the preservation, viability, and revival of long‐term dormant dinoflagellate cysts buried in sediments remain unknown. Based on studies of plant seed physiology, we tested whether the revival of ancient cysts preserved in century‐old sediments from the Bay of Brest (France) could be stimulated by melatonin and gibberellic acid, two molecules commonly used in seed priming. Dinoflagellates were revived from sediments dated to approximately 150 years ago (156 ± 27, 32 cm depth), extending the known record age of cyst viability previously established as around one century. A culture suspension of sediments mixed with melatonin and gibberellic acid solutions as biostimulants exhibited germination of 11 dinoflagellate taxa that could not be revived under controlled culture conditions. The biostimulants revived some dinoflagellates from century‐old sediments, including the potentially toxic species Alexandrium minutum. The biostimulants showed positive effects on germination on even more ancient cysts, showing dose‐dependent effects on the germination of Scrippsiella acuminata. Concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 µM melatonin and gibberellic acid promoted germination. In contrast, 1000 µM solutions, particularly for melatonin, drastically decreased germination, suggesting a potential noxious effect of high doses of these molecules on dinoflagellate revival. Our findings suggest that melatonin and gibberellic acid are involved in the stimulation of germination of dinoflagellate cysts. These biostimulants can be used to germinate long‐term stored dinoflagellate cysts, which may promote studies of ancient strains in the resurrection ecology research field.

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