Use of Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Diversity of Toxins Produced by Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa Species from Balearic Islands and Crete (Mediterranean Sea) and the Canary Islands (Northeast Atlantic)

Type Article
Date 2020-05
Language English
Author(s) Estevez Pablo1, Sibat ManoellaORCID2, Leão-Martins José Manuel1, Tudó Angels3, Rambla-Alegre Maria3, Aligizaki Katerina4, Diogène Jorge3, Gago-Martinez Ana1, Hess PhilippORCID2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Biomedical Research Center (CINBIO), Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Campus Universitario de Vigo, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2 : Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Ifremer, Rue de l’Île d’Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
3 : Marine and Continental Waters programme, Ctra. Poble Nou, km. 5.5, IRTA, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, 43540 Tarragona, Spain
4 : Laboratory Unit on Harmful Marine Microalgae, Biology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Source Toxins (2072-6651) (MDPI AG), 2020-05 , Vol. 12 , N. 5 , P. 305 (21p.)
DOI 10.3390/toxins12050305
WOS© Times Cited 22
Note This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins
Keyword(s) maitotoxins, ciguatoxins, Gambierdiscus, Fukuyoa, LC-MS, MS, HRMS, QToF, ciguatera poisoning

Over the last decade, knowledge has significantly increased on the taxonomic identity and distribution of dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Additionally, a number of hitherto unknown bioactive metabolites have been described, while the role of these compounds in ciguatera poisoning (CP) remains to be clarified. Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins are very toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates and have been described since the 1980s. Ciguatoxins are generally described as the main contributors to this food intoxication. Recent reports of CP in temperate waters of the Canary Islands (Spain) and the Madeira archipelago (Portugal) triggered the need for isolation and cultivation of dinoflagellates from these areas, and their taxonomic and toxicological characterization. Maitotoxins, and specifically maitotoxin-4, has been described as one of the most toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates (e.g., G. excentricus) in the Canary Islands. Thus, characterization of toxin profiles of Gambierdiscus species from adjacent regions appears critical. The combination of liquid chromatography coupled to either low- or high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed for characterization of several strains of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa from the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands. Maitotoxin-3, two analogues tentatively identified as gambieric acid C and D, a putative gambierone analogue and a putative gambieroxide were detected in all G. australes strains from Menorca and Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) while only maitotoxin-3 was present in an F. paulensis strain of the same region. An unidentified Gambierdiscus species (Gambierdiscus sp.2) from Crete (Greece) showed a different toxin profile, detecting both maitotoxin-3 and gambierone, while the availability of a G. excentricus strain from the Canary Islands (Spain) confirmed the presence of maitotoxin-4 in this species. Overall, this study shows that toxin profiles not only appear to be species-specific but probably also specific to larger geographic regions.

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Estevez Pablo, Sibat Manoella, Leão-Martins José Manuel, Tudó Angels, Rambla-Alegre Maria, Aligizaki Katerina, Diogène Jorge, Gago-Martinez Ana, Hess Philipp (2020). Use of Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Diversity of Toxins Produced by Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa Species from Balearic Islands and Crete (Mediterranean Sea) and the Canary Islands (Northeast Atlantic). Toxins, 12(5), 305 (21p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :