Genetic diversity and connectivity of Flaccisagitta enflata (Chaetognatha: Sagittidae) in the tropical Atlantic ocean (northeastern Brazil)

Type Article
Date 2020-05
Language English
Author(s) Melo Danielle C. M.1, Lira Simone M. A.1, 2, Moreira Ana Paula B.3, Freitas Lucas4, Lima Camilla A. D.1, Thompson Fabiano3, 5, Bertrand Arnaud1, 6, 7, Silva Alex C.1, Neumann-Leitão Sigrid1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
2 : Programa de pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
3 : Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4 : Departamento de Genética, Evolução, Microbiologia e Imunologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
5 : SAGE—COPPE, Centro de Gestão Tecnológica—CT2, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
6 : Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
7 : MARBEC, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Université Montpellier, Sète, France
Source Plos One (1932-6203) (Public Library of Science (PLoS)), 2020-05 , Vol. 15 , N. 5 , P. e0231574 (21p.)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0231574
WOS© Times Cited 1

The phylogeography of the holoplanktonic chaetognath Flaccisagitta enflata was investigated in the Tropical Western Atlantic (TWA). Considering the cosmopolitan range of this species and the fact that its entire life cycle is planktonic, the central hypothesis of this study is that F. enflata exhibits connectivity due to its high dispersal capacity, forming a panmictic population among the study sites. The evaluated areas included neritic (Port of Recife–PR, and Tamandaré - TA) and oceanic (Fernando de Noronha Archipelago—FN, Rocas Atoll—RA, Guará seamount—GS and Saint Peter and Saint Paul’s Archipelago—SPSPA) locations of the Brazilian Blue Amazon. We used COI gene sequences as molecular marker. Partial sequences (425 bp) were obtained for 116 specimens and employed to reconstruct the phylogeny, build an haplotype network, evaluate gene flow through a migration model, and estimate diversity indices, population structuring and demographic history. High levels of haplotype diversity (mean: 0.98) and moderate to high levels of nucleotide diversity (mean: 0.023) were observed. The phylogeny and the haplotype network topologies showed some geographic clustering, indicating local structuring in GS and PR. This finding was supported by the AMOVA high global Φst (0.033, significant) and some pairwise Φst comparisons (7 out of 15 were significantly >0). Significant differences suggested lower levels of connectivity when GS population was compared to those of FN and SPSPA; as well as when TA was compared to FN. These results might be related to particularities of the oceanic dynamics which rules the TWA, sustaining such dissimilarities. Structuring was also observed between PR and all oceanic locations. We hypothesize that the topography of the port inlet, enclosured by a reef barrier, may constrain the water turnover ratio and thus migration rates of F. enflata in the TWA. Accordingly, Migrate-N yielded a four metapopulations model (PR ⇌ TA ⇌ SPSPA+FN ⇌ GS+RA) as the best (highest probability; ~0.90) to represent the structuring of F. enflata in the TWA. Therefore, the null hypothesis of one randomly mating population cannot be accepted. The demographic evaluation demonstrated that the neutral hypothesis of stable populations may not be rejected for most of the locations. This work is the start point to broaden the knowledge on the phylogeography and population genetic structure of a numerically dominant species in the Western Atlantic, with key role in the marine trophic web.

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Publisher's official version 21 2 MB Open access
S1 Table. Identification, geographic location, sampling date and GenBank accession numbers of Flaccisagitta enflata analyzed in the present study. 7 176 KB Open access
S2 Table. Information on the COI sequences used as a reference for the investigation of the evolutionary history of Flaccisagitta enflata analyzed in the present study. 2 186 KB Open access
Correction 10.1371/journal.pone.0234679 1 252 KB Open access
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Melo Danielle C. M., Lira Simone M. A., Moreira Ana Paula B., Freitas Lucas, Lima Camilla A. D., Thompson Fabiano, Bertrand Arnaud, Silva Alex C., Neumann-Leitão Sigrid (2020). Genetic diversity and connectivity of Flaccisagitta enflata (Chaetognatha: Sagittidae) in the tropical Atlantic ocean (northeastern Brazil). Plos One, 15(5), e0231574 (21p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :