Facies architecture of Miocene subaqueous clinothems of the New Jersey passive margin: Results from IODP-ICDP Expedition 313
|Author(s)||Proust Jean-Noel1, Pouderoux Hugo1, Ando Hisao2, Hesselbo Stephen P.3, Hodgson David M.4, Lofi Johanna5, Rabineau Marina6, Sugarman Peter J.7|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Rennes, CNRS, Geosci, F-35042 Rennes, France.
2 : Ibaraki Univ, Coll Sci, Dept Earth Sci, Bunkyo Ku, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan.
3 : Univ Exeter, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn Campus, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, England.
4 : Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
5 : Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Geosci, F-34090 Montpellier, France.
6 : Inst Univ Europeen La Mer, CNRS, Geosci Ocean, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
7 : New Jersey Geol Survey, Trenton, NJ 08638 USA.
|Source||Geosphere (1553-040X) (Geological Soc Amer, Inc), 2018-08 , Vol. 14 , N. 4 , P. 1564-1591|
|WOS© Times Cited||8|
Understanding the history, causes, and impact of sea-level changes is a challenge for our societies that face accelerated global sea-level rise. In this context, improvement of our knowledge of sea-level changes and shoreline migration at geological time scales is critical. The preserved, laterally correlative sedimentary record of continental erosion on passive margins has been used to reconstruct past sea level. However, the detailed nature of a basic clinothem progradational pattern observed on many of these margins is still poorly known. This paper describes the sedimentary facies and interprets the depositional environments and the architecture of the clinothems of the New Jersey shelf (offshore northeastern USA) to depict the origin and controls of the distribution of the sediment on the margin. We analyze 612 cores totaling 1311 m in length collected at three sites 60 km offshore Atlantic City, New Jersey, during International Ocean Discovery Program-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (IODP-ICDP) Expedition 313. The three sites sampled the lower to middle Miocene passive margin sediments of the New Jersey shelf clinothems. We also collected wireline logs at the three sites and tied the sedimentary architecture to the geometry observed on seismic profiles. The observed sediment distribution in the clinoform complex differs from that of current models based on seismic data, which predict a progressive increase in mud and decrease in sand contents in a seaward direction. In contrast, we observe that the clinoforms are largely composed of muds, with sands and coarser material concentrated at the rollover, the bottomset, and the toe of the slope. The shelf clinothem topsets are storm-influenced mud whereas the foreset slope is composed of a mud wedge largely dominated by density current deposits (e.g., low-density turbidites and debrites). The architecture of the clinothem complex includes a composite stack of similar to 30-m-thick clinothem units each made up of four systems tracts (Transgressive, Highstand, Forced-Regressive, and Lowstand Systems Tract) building individual transgressive-regressive sequences. The presence of mud-rich facies deposited during high-stands on the topset of the clinoform, 40-60 km offshore from the sand-prone shoreface deposit (observed in the New Jersey onshore delta plain), and the lack of subaerial erosion (and continental depositional environments) point to a depositional model involving a subaerial delta (onshore) feeding a distant subaqueous delta. During forced regressions, shelf-edge deltas periodically overstep the stacks of flood-influenced, offshore-marine mud wedges of the New Jersey subaqueous delta, bringing sand to the rollover and building up the large-scale shelf-prism clinothems. The clinothem complex develops on a gently dipping platform with a ramp-like morphology (apparent dip of 0.75 degrees-0.5 degrees) below mean storm wave base, in 30-50 m of water depth, 40-60 km seaward of the coastal area. Its shape depends on the balance between accommodation and sedimentation rates. Subaqueous deltas show higher accumulation rates than their subaerial counterparts and prograde three times further and faster than their contemporaneous shoreline. The increase in the intensity of waves (height and recurrence intervals) favors the separation between subaqueous and subaerial deltas, and as a consequence, the formation of a flat topset geometry, a decrease in flood events and fluvial discharge, an overall progressive decrease in sediment grain size (from sequence m5.45, ca. 17.8-17. 7 Ma, onwards), as well as an increase in sedimentation rates on the foresets of the clinoforms. All of these are recognized as preliminary signals that might characterize the entry into the Neogene icehouse world.