Reviews and syntheses: The biogeochemical cycle of silicon in the modern ocean

Type Article
Date 2021-02
Language English
Author(s) Treguer Paul1, 2, Sutton Jill1, Brzezinski Mark3, Charette Matthew A.4, Devries Timothy5, Dutkiewicz Stephanie6, Ehlert Claudia7, Hawkings Jon8, 9, Leynaert Aude1, Mei Liu Su10, 11, Llopis Monferrer Natalia1, Lopez Acosta Maria12, 13, Maldonado Manuel13, Rahman Shaily14, Ran Lihua15, Rouxel OlivierORCID16
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, LEMAR, Rue Dumont d'Urville, 29280, Plouzané, France
2 : State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Dynamics (SOED), Ministry of Natural Resource, Hangzhou 310012, China
3 : Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
4 : Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
5 : Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA
6 : Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (DEAPS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
7 : Research Group for Marine Isotope Geochemistry, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany
8 : National High Magnetic Field Lab and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Florida State University, USA
9 : Interface Geochemistry, German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, Postdam, Germany
10 : Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, and Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology MOEy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
11 : Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
12 : Institute of Marine Research (IIM-CSIC), Rúa de Eduardo Cabello 6, Vigo 36208, Pontevedra, Spain
13 : Department of Marine Ecology, Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acceso Cala St. Francesc 14, Blanes 17300, Girona, Spain
14 : Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
15 : Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, P. R. China
16 : IFREMER, Centre de Brest, Technopôle Brest Iroise, Plouzané, France
Source Biogeosciences (1726-4170) (Copernicus GmbH), 2021-02 , Vol. 18 , N. 4 , P. 1269-1289
DOI 10.5194/bg-18-1269-2021
Abstract

he element silicon (Si) is required for the growth of silicified organisms in marine environments, such as diatoms, which consume vast amounts of Si together with N, P, and C, connecting the biogeochemical cycles of these elements. Thus, understanding the Si cycle in the ocean is critical for understanding issues such as carbon sequestration by the ocean's biological pump. In this review, we show that recent advances in process studies indicate that total Si inputs and outputs, to and from the world ocean, are 57 % and 18 % higher, respectively, than previous estimates. We also update the total ocean silicic acid inventory value, which is about 24 % higher than previously estimated. These changes are significant, modifying factors such as the geochemical residence time of Si, which is now about 8000 years and two times faster than previously assumed. In addition, we present an updated value of the global annual pelagic biogenic silica production (255 Tmol-Si yr−1) based on new data from 49 field studies and 18 model outputs, and provide a first estimate of the global annual benthic biogenic silica production due to sponges (6 Tmol-Si yr−1). Given these important modifications, we address the steady state hypothesis of the Si cycle for past and modern oceans, and propose a possible steady state scenario for the global ocean (inputs = outputs = 14.8 Tmol-Si yr−1) and boundary exchange zone. Case studies for future programs are highlighted, and potential impacts of global change on the marine Si cycle discussed.

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Treguer Paul, Sutton Jill, Brzezinski Mark, Charette Matthew A., Devries Timothy, Dutkiewicz Stephanie, Ehlert Claudia, Hawkings Jon, Leynaert Aude, Mei Liu Su, Llopis Monferrer Natalia, Lopez Acosta Maria, Maldonado Manuel, Rahman Shaily, Ran Lihua, Rouxel Olivier (2021). Reviews and syntheses: The biogeochemical cycle of silicon in the modern ocean. Biogeosciences, 18(4), 1269-1289. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-1269-2021 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00643/75509/