Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks

Type Article
Date 2020-07
Language English
Author(s) Macneil M. AaronORCID1, Chapman Demian D.2, Heupel Michelle3, Simpfendorfer Colin A.4, Heithaus MichaelORCID2, Meekan MarkORCID5, 6, Harvey EuanORCID7, Goetze Jordan7, 8, Kiszka Jeremy2, Bond Mark E.2, Currey-Randall Leanne M.3, Speed Conrad W.5, 6, Sherman C. Samantha4, Rees Matthew J.5, 9, Udyawer VinayORCID10, Flowers Kathryn I.2, Clementi Gina2, Valentin-Albanese Jasmine1, Gorham Taylor1, Adam M. Shiham2, Ali Khadeeja2, 11, Pina-Amargos Fabian12, Angulo-Valdes Jorge A.13, 14, Asher Jacob15, 16, Barcia Laura Garcia2, Beaufort Oceane17, Benjamin Cecilie18, Bernard Anthony T. F.19, 20, Berumen Michael L.21, Bierwagen Stacy4, Bonnema Erika2, Bown Rosalind M. K.22, Bradley Darcey23, Brooks Edd24, Brown J. Jed25, Buddo Dayne26, Burke Patrick27, Caceres Camila2, Cardenosa DiegoORCID28, Carrier Jeffrey C.29, Caselle Jennifer E.30, Charloo Venkatesh31, Claverie Thomas32, Clua Eric33, Cochran Jesse E. M.21, Cook NeilORCID34, 35, Cramp Jessica36, 37, D'Alberto Brooke4, de Graaf Martin38, Dornhege Mareike39, Estep Andy40, Fanovich Lanya34, Farabough Naomi F.2, Fernando DanielORCID22, Flam Anna L.41, Floros Camilla42, Fourqurean Virginia2, Garla RicardoORCID43, Gastrich Kirk2, George Lachlan4, Graham Rory44, Guttridge Tristan45, 46, Hardenstine Royale S.21, Heck Stephen28, Henderson Aaron C.47, 48, Hertler Heidi48, Hueter Robert49, Johnson Mohini50, Jupiter StacyORCID51, Kasana Devanshi2, Kessel Steven T.52, Kiilu Benedict53, Kirata Taratu54, Kuguru Baraka55, Kyne Fabian56, Langlois Tim57, Ledee Elodie J. I.58, Lindfield Steve59, Luna-Acosta Andrea60, Maggs Jade61, Manjaji-Matsumoto B. Mabel62, Marshall Andrea41, Matich Philip63, McCombs Erin64, McLean DianneORCID5, 6, Meggs Llewelyn65, Moore Stephen66, Mukherji Sushmita4, Murray Ryan67, Kaimuddin Muslimin68, Newman Stephen J.69, Nogues Josep70, Obota Clay71, O'Shea Owen72, Osuka Kennedy73, Papastamatiou Yannis P.2, Perera Nishan22, Peterson Bradley28, Ponzo Alessandro67, Prasetyo Andhika74, Quamar L. M. Sjamsul75, Quinlan Jessica2, Ruiz-Abierno Alexei13, Sala Enric76, Samoilys Melita71, 77, Scharer-Umpierre Michelle78, Schlaff Audrey4, Simpson Nikola79, Smith Adam N. H.80, Sparks Lauren81, Tanna AkshayORCID22, 82, Torres Ruben83, Travers Michael J.69, Van Zinnicq Bergmann Maurits2, 45, Vigliola Laurent84, Ward Juney85, Watts Alexandra M.41, 82, Wen Colin86, Whitman Elizabeth2, Wirsing Aaron J.87, Wothke Aljoscha34, Zarza-Gonzalez Esteban88, Cinner Joshua E.36
Affiliation(s) 1 : Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
2 : Institute of Environment, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA
3 : Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
4 : Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
5 : Australian Institute of Marine Science, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
6 : The UWA Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
7 : School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
8 : Marine Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY, USA
9 : Centre for Sustainable Ecosystems Solutions, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
10 : Australian Institute of Marine Science, Arafura Timor Research Facility, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
11 : Maldives Marine Research Institute, Ministry of Fisheries, Marine Resources and Agriculture, Malé, Maldives
12 : Centro de Investigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros (CIEC), Cayo Coco, Morón, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba
13 : Centro de Investigaciones Marinas, Universidad de la Habana, Havana, Cuba
14 : Galbraith Marine Science Laboratory, Eckerd College, St Petersburg, FL, USA
15 : Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
16 : Habitat and Living Marine Resources Program, Ecosystem Sciences Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, HI, USA
17 : Réseau requins des Antilles Francaises, Kap Natirel, Vieux-Fort, Guadeloupe
18 : Mahonia Na Dari Research and Conservation Centre, Kimbe, Papua New Guinea
19 : South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Grahamstown, South Africa
20 : Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
21 : Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
22 : Blue Resources Trust, Colombo, Sri Lanka
23 : Bren School of Environmental Sciences and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
24 : Shark Research and Conservation Program, Cape Eleuthera Institute, Cape Eleuthera, Eleuthera, Bahamas
25 : Center for Sustainable Development, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
26 : University of the West Indies, Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Discovery Bay, Jamaica
27 : Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
28 : School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
29 : Albion College, Albion, MI, USA
30 : Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
31 : Coastal Impact, Quitula, Aldona Bardez, India
32 : CUFR Mayotte & Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, IFREMER, Montpellier, France
33 : PSL Research University, LABEX CORAIL, CRIOBE USRUSR3278 EPHE-CNRS-UPVD, Mòorea, French Polynesi
34 : Environmental Research Institute Charlotteville, Charlotteville, Trinidad and Tobago
35 : School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
36 : ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
37 : Sharks Pacific, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
38 : Wageningen Marine Research, Wageningen University & Research, IJmuiden, The Netherlands
39 : Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
40 : Waitt Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
41 : Marine Megafauna Foundation, Truckee, CA, USA
42 : The South African Association for Marine Biological Research, Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
43 : Departamento de Botânica e Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
44 : Independent consultant, Hull, UK
45 : Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation, South Bimini, Bahamas
46 : Saving the Blue, Kendall, Miami, FL, USA
47 : Biology Department, College of Science, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
48 : The School for Field Studies Center for Marine Resource Studies, South Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands
49 : Center for Shark Research, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL, USA
50 : Operation Wallacea, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, UK
51 : Wildlife Conservation Society, Melanesia Program, Suva, Fiji
52 : Daniel P. Haerther Center for Conservation and Research, John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, IL, USA
53 : Kenya Fisheries Service, Mombasa, Kenya
54 : Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Development, Kiritimati, Kiribati
55 : Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
56 : University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica
57 : School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
58 : Fish Ecology and Conservation Physiology Laboratory, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
59 : Coral Reef Research Foundation, Koror, Palau
60 : Departamento de Ecología y Territorio, Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
61 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hataitai, New Zealand
62 : Endangered Marine Species Research Unit, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
63 : Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
64 : Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, CA, USA
65 : Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation, Annapolis, MD, USA
66 : Department of Biodiversity, Conservation & Attractions, Parks & Wildlife WA, Pilbara Region, Nickol, Western Australia, Australia
67 : Large Marine Vertebrates Research Institute Philippines, Jagna, The Philippines
68 : Wasage Divers, Wakatobi and Buton, Indonesia
69 : Western Australian Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia, North Beach, Western Australia, Australia
70 : Island Conservation Society Seychelles, Victoria, Mahé, Seychelles
71 : CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya
72 : The Centre for Ocean Research and Education, Gregory Town, Eleuthera, Bahamas
73 : Department of Environment and Geography, University of York, York, UK
74 : Center for Fisheries Research, Ministry for Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Jakarta Utara, Indonesia
75 : Universitas Dayanu Ikhsanuddin Bau-Bau, Bau-Bau, Indonesia
76 : Pristine Seas, National Geographic Society, Washington, DC, USA
77 : Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
78 : HJR Reefscaping, Boquerón, Puerto Rico
79 : SalvageBlue, Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
80 : School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
81 : Indo Ocean Project, PT Nomads Diving Bali, Nusa Penida, Indonesia
82 : Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
83 : Reef Check Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
84 : Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR ENTROPIE (IRD-UR-UNC-CNRS-IFREMER), Nouméa, New Caledonia
85 : Secretariat of the Pacific Regional, Environment Programme, Apia, Samoa
86 : Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan
87 : School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
88 : Corales del Rosario and San Bernardo National Natural Park, GIBEAM Research Group, Universidad del Sinú, Cartagena, Colombia.
Source Nature (0028-0836) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2020-07 , Vol. 583 , N. 7818 , P. 801-806
DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2519-y
WOS© Times Cited 43
Abstract

Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.

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Macneil M. Aaron, Chapman Demian D., Heupel Michelle, Simpfendorfer Colin A., Heithaus Michael, Meekan Mark, Harvey Euan, Goetze Jordan, Kiszka Jeremy, Bond Mark E., Currey-Randall Leanne M., Speed Conrad W., Sherman C. Samantha, Rees Matthew J., Udyawer Vinay, Flowers Kathryn I., Clementi Gina, Valentin-Albanese Jasmine, Gorham Taylor, Adam M. Shiham, Ali Khadeeja, Pina-Amargos Fabian, Angulo-Valdes Jorge A., Asher Jacob, Barcia Laura Garcia, Beaufort Oceane, Benjamin Cecilie, Bernard Anthony T. F., Berumen Michael L., Bierwagen Stacy, Bonnema Erika, Bown Rosalind M. K., Bradley Darcey, Brooks Edd, Brown J. Jed, Buddo Dayne, Burke Patrick, Caceres Camila, Cardenosa Diego, Carrier Jeffrey C., Caselle Jennifer E., Charloo Venkatesh, Claverie Thomas, Clua Eric, Cochran Jesse E. M., Cook Neil, Cramp Jessica, D'Alberto Brooke, de Graaf Martin, Dornhege Mareike, Estep Andy, Fanovich Lanya, Farabough Naomi F., Fernando Daniel, Flam Anna L., Floros Camilla, Fourqurean Virginia, Garla Ricardo, Gastrich Kirk, George Lachlan, Graham Rory, Guttridge Tristan, Hardenstine Royale S., Heck Stephen, Henderson Aaron C., Hertler Heidi, Hueter Robert, Johnson Mohini, Jupiter Stacy, Kasana Devanshi, Kessel Steven T., Kiilu Benedict, Kirata Taratu, Kuguru Baraka, Kyne Fabian, Langlois Tim, Ledee Elodie J. I., Lindfield Steve, Luna-Acosta Andrea, Maggs Jade, Manjaji-Matsumoto B. Mabel, Marshall Andrea, Matich Philip, McCombs Erin, McLean Dianne, Meggs Llewelyn, Moore Stephen, Mukherji Sushmita, Murray Ryan, Kaimuddin Muslimin, Newman Stephen J., Nogues Josep, Obota Clay, O'Shea Owen, Osuka Kennedy, Papastamatiou Yannis P., Perera Nishan, Peterson Bradley, Ponzo Alessandro, Prasetyo Andhika, Quamar L. M. Sjamsul, Quinlan Jessica, Ruiz-Abierno Alexei, Sala Enric, Samoilys Melita, Scharer-Umpierre Michelle, Schlaff Audrey, Simpson Nikola, Smith Adam N. H., Sparks Lauren, Tanna Akshay, Torres Ruben, Travers Michael J., Van Zinnicq Bergmann Maurits, Vigliola Laurent, Ward Juney, Watts Alexandra M., Wen Colin, Whitman Elizabeth, Wirsing Aaron J., Wothke Aljoscha, Zarza-Gonzalez Esteban, Cinner Joshua E. (2020). Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks. Nature, 583(7818), 801-806. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2519-y , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00644/75627/