A Road Map to IndOOS-2: Better observations of the rapidly-warming Indian Ocean

Type Article
Date 2020-11
Language English
Author(s) Beal L. M.1, Vialard J.2, Roxy M.K.3, Li J.4, Andres M.5, Annamalai H.6, Feng M.7, 8, Han W.9, Hood R.10, Lee T.11, Lengaigne Matthieu2, Lumpkin R.12, Masumoto Y.13, 14, McPhaden M.J.15, Ravichandran M.16, Shinoda T.17, Sloyan B.M.7, 8, Strutton P.G.18, Subramanian A.C.9, Tozuka T.13, Ummenhofer C.C.5, Unnikrishnan A.S.19, Wiggert J.20, Yu L.5, Cheng L.21, 22, Desbruyères DamienORCID23, Parvathi V24
Affiliation(s) 1 : Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
2 : Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Université Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, IPSL, Paris, France
3 : Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 : International CLIVAR Project Office, First Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Qingdao, China
5 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
6 : IPRC/SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, USA
7 : Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
8 : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Oceans and Atmosphere, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
9 : Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
10 : University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, Maryland, USA
11 : NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
12 : NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA
13 : University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
14 : JAMSTEC/Application Laboratory, Yokohama, Japan
15 : NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington, USA
16 : University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, Washington, Maryland, USA; National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (ESSO-NCPOR), Goa, India
17 : Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Texas, USA
18 : Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
19 : CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India
20 : University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA
21 : International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
22 : Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
23 : Ifremer, University of Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d’Océanographie Physique et Spatiale, IUEM, Brest, France
24 : Center for Prototype Climate Modeling, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Source Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society (0003-0007) (American Meteorological Society), 2020-11 , Vol. 101 , N. 11 , P. E1891-E1913
DOI 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0209.1
WOS© Times Cited 1
Abstract

The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), established in 2006, is a multi-national network of sustained oceanic measurements that underpin understanding and forecasting of weather and climate for the Indian Ocean region and beyond. Almost one-third of humanity indeed lives around the Indian Ocean, many in countries dependent on fisheries and rain-fed agriculture that are vulnerable to climate variability and extremes. The Indian Ocean alone has absorbed a quarter of the global oceanic heat uptake over the last two decades and the fate of this heat and its impact on future change is unknown. Climate models project accelerating sea level rise, more frequent extremes in monsoon rainfall, and decreasing oceanic productivity. In view of these new scientific challenges, a three-year, international review of the IndOOS by more than 60 scientific experts now highlights the need for an enhanced observing network that can better meet societal challenges, and provide more reliable forecasts. Here we present core findings from this review, including the need for 1) chemical, biological, and ecosystem measurements alongside physical parameters; 2) expansion into the western tropics to improve understanding of the monsoon circulation; 3) better resolved upper-ocean processes to improve understanding of air-sea coupling and yield better sub-seasonal to seasonal predictions; and 4) expansion into key coastal regions and the deep ocean to better constrain the basin-wide energy budget. These goals will require new agreements and partnerships with and among Indian Ocean rim countries, creating opportunities for them to enhance their monitoring and forecasting capacity as part of IndOOS-2.

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Beal L. M., Vialard J., Roxy M.K., Li J., Andres M., Annamalai H., Feng M., Han W., Hood R., Lee T., Lengaigne Matthieu, Lumpkin R., Masumoto Y., McPhaden M.J., Ravichandran M., Shinoda T., Sloyan B.M., Strutton P.G., Subramanian A.C., Tozuka T., Ummenhofer C.C., Unnikrishnan A.S., Wiggert J., Yu L., Cheng L., Desbruyères Damien, Parvathi V (2020). A Road Map to IndOOS-2: Better observations of the rapidly-warming Indian Ocean. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 101(11), E1891-E1913. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0209.1 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00644/75658/