Hydrothermal Vents: Oases at Depth

Type Book section
Date 2015
Language English
Author(s) Sarrazin JozeeORCID1, Desbruyeres Daniel1
Book Marine Ecosystems : Diversity and Functions. 2015. André Monaco, Patrick Prouzet (Eds.) From the Seas and Oceans Set coordinated by André Mariotti and Jean-Charles Pomerol. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISTE . Print ISBN:9781848217829, Online ISBN:9781119116219, DOI:10.1002/9781119116219. Chap.6, pp.225-292
DOI 10.1002/9781119116219.ch6
Keyword(s) chemical composition, deep‐sea animals, deep‐sea ecosystems, faunal microdistribution, hydrothermal fluids hydrothermal system geochemistry, hydrothermal system geology, hydrothermal systems, marine fauna, microbial chemosynthesis
Abstract

The synthesis of organic molecules in hydrothermal fluids raises the question of what role hydrothermal vents may have played in the emergence of life on Earth. These deep‐sea ecosystems were most likely protected from extreme conditions at the surface (meteor showers and ultraviolet radiation). Since the middle of the 19th century, scientists have questioned the position of deep‐sea animals in the evolution of marine fauna, in the hope to discover the missing link, i.e. the species or group that may have survived mass extinctions in this protected and stable environment. This chapter discusses the geology and geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, microbial chemosynthesis, symbioses and trophic chains, and fauna at different spatial scales. Fauna assemblages colonize narrow mixing gradients between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, on hard substrataor in thick sediment layers. Most temporal studies are not based on continuous temporal monitoring but on regular visits by manned or unmanned submersibles.

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Sarrazin Jozee, Desbruyeres Daniel (2015). Hydrothermal Vents: Oases at Depth. In Marine Ecosystems : Diversity and Functions. 2015. André Monaco, Patrick Prouzet (Eds.) From the Seas and Oceans Set coordinated by André Mariotti and Jean-Charles Pomerol. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISTE . Print ISBN:9781848217829, Online ISBN:9781119116219, DOI:10.1002/9781119116219. Chap.6, pp.225-292 (Wiley). https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00648/75995/