Morphological and phylogenetic data do not support the split of Alexandrium into four genera

Type Article
Date 2020-09
Language English
Author(s) Mertens KennethORCID1, Adachi Masao2, Anderson Donald M.3, Band-Schmidt Christine J.4, Bravo Isabel5, Brosnahan Michael L.3, Bolch Christopher J.S.6, Calado António J.7, Carbonell-Moore M. Consuelo8, Chomérat NicolasORCID1, Elbrächter Malte9, Figueroa Rosa Isabel5, Fraga Santiago10, Gárate-Lizárraga Ismael11, Garcés Esther12, Gu Haifeng13, Hallegraeff Gustaaf14, Hess PhilippORCID15, Hoppenrath Mona16, Horiguchi Takeo17, Iwataki Mitsunori18, John Uwe19, Kremp Anke20, Larsen Jacob21, Leaw Chui Pin22, Li Zhun23, Lim Po Teen22, Litaker Wayne24, Mackenzie Lincoln25, Masseret Estelle26, Matsuoka Kazumi27, Moestrup Øjvind21, Montresor Marina28, Nagai Satoshi29, Nézan Elisabeth1, 30, Nishimura Tomohiro25, Okolodkov Yuri B.31, Orlova Tatiana Yu.32, Reñé Albert12, Sampedro Nagore12, Satta Cecilia Teodora33, Shin Hyeon Ho34, Siano Raffaele35, Smith Kirsty F.25, Steidinger Karen36, Takano Yoshihito37, Tillmann Urban19, Wolny Jennifer38, Yamaguchi Aika17, Murray Shauna39
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, LER BO, Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, BP40537, F-29185 Concarneau Cedex, France
2 : Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Science (LAQUES), Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, 200 Otsu, Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
3 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
4 : Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (IPN-CICIMAR), La Paz, B.C.S. 23096, Mexico
5 : Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Subida a Radio Faro 50, 36390 Vigo, Spain
6 : Institute for Marine & Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1370, Launceston TAS 7250, Australia
7 : Department of Biology and GeoBioTec Research Unit, University of Aveiro, P-3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
8 : Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902, USA
9 : Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung Sylt, Hafenstr. 43, 25992 List/Sylt, Germany
10 : Praza Mestra Manuela 1, 36340 Nigrán, Spain
11 : Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Apartado Postal 592, Col. Centro, La Paz, B.C.S. 23000, Mexico
12 : Departament de Biologia Marina i Oceanografía, Institut de Ciències del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
13 : Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China
14 : Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
15 : Ifremer, DYNECO, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
16 : Senckenberg am Meer, German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research, Wilhelmshaven, Germany
17 : Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, North 10, West 8, Sapporo 060-0810, Hokkaido, Japan
18 : Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
19 : Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany
20 : Leibniz Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany
21 : Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 4, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
22 : Bachok Marine Research Station, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, 16310 Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia
23 : Biological Resource Center/Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea
24 : CSS Inc. Under contract to NOS/NOAA, Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA
25 : Coastal & Freshwater Group, Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
26 : MARBEC, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France
27 : C/O Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1551-7 Taira-machi, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan
28 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
29 : National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648, Japan
30 : National Museum of Natural History, DGD-REVE, Station de Biologie Marine de Concarneau, Place de la Croix, 29900 Concarneau, France
31 : Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Pesquerías, Laboratorio de Botánica Marina y Planctología, Calle Mar Mediterráneo No. 314, Fracc. Costa Verde, C.P. 94294 Boca del Río, Veracruz, Mexico
32 : A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevskogo Street, 17, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
33 : Dipartimento di Architettura, Design e Urbanistica, University of Sassari, Via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari, Italy
34 : Library of Marine Samples, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje, Republic of Korea
35 : Ifremer, DYNECO, PELAGOS, F-29280 Plouzané, France
36 : Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 100 8th Avenue SE St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
37 : Faculty of Science and Technology, Kochi University, Japan
38 : Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1919 Lincoln Drive Annapolis, MD 21401 USA
39 : Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2020-09 , Vol. 98 , P. 101902 (8p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101902
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) Taxonomy, Phylogenetics, Paraphyletic, Saxitoxin, Spirolides, Harmful algal blooms
Abstract

A recently published study analyzed the phylogenetic relationship between the genera Centrodinium and Alexandrium, confirming an earlier publication showing the genus Alexandrium as paraphyletic. This most recent manuscript retained the genus Alexandrium, introduced a new genus Episemicolon, resurrected two genera, Gessnerium and Protogonyaulax, and stated that: “The polyphyly [sic] of Alexandrium is solved with the split into four genera”. However, these reintroduced taxa were not based on monophyletic groups. Therefore this work, if accepted, would result in replacing a single paraphyletic taxon with several non-monophyletic ones. The morphological data presented for genus characterization also do not convincingly support taxa delimitations. The combination of weak molecular phylogenetics and the lack of diagnostic traits (i.e., autapomorphies) render the applicability of the concept of limited use. The proposal to split the genus Alexandrium on the basis of our current knowledge is rejected herein. The aim here is not to present an alternative analysis and revision, but to maintain Alexandrium. A better constructed and more phylogenetically accurate revision can and should wait until more complete evidence becomes available and there is a strong reason to revise the genus Alexandrium. The reasons are explained in detail by a review of the available molecular and morphological data for species of the genera Alexandrium and Centrodinium. In addition, cyst morphology and chemotaxonomy are discussed, and the need for integrative taxonomy is highlighted.

 

Full Text
File Pages Size Access
8 507 KB Access on demand
Author's final draft 29 913 KB Open access
Top of the page

How to cite 

Mertens Kenneth, Adachi Masao, Anderson Donald M., Band-Schmidt Christine J., Bravo Isabel, Brosnahan Michael L., Bolch Christopher J.S., Calado António J., Carbonell-Moore M. Consuelo, Chomérat Nicolas, Elbrächter Malte, Figueroa Rosa Isabel, Fraga Santiago, Gárate-Lizárraga Ismael, Garcés Esther, Gu Haifeng, Hallegraeff Gustaaf, Hess Philipp, Hoppenrath Mona, Horiguchi Takeo, Iwataki Mitsunori, John Uwe, Kremp Anke, Larsen Jacob, Leaw Chui Pin, Li Zhun, Lim Po Teen, Litaker Wayne, Mackenzie Lincoln, Masseret Estelle, Matsuoka Kazumi, Moestrup Øjvind, Montresor Marina, Nagai Satoshi, Nézan Elisabeth, Nishimura Tomohiro, Okolodkov Yuri B., Orlova Tatiana Yu., Reñé Albert, Sampedro Nagore, Satta Cecilia Teodora, Shin Hyeon Ho, Siano Raffaele, Smith Kirsty F., Steidinger Karen, Takano Yoshihito, Tillmann Urban, Wolny Jennifer, Yamaguchi Aika, Murray Shauna (2020). Morphological and phylogenetic data do not support the split of Alexandrium into four genera. Harmful Algae, 98, 101902 (8p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2020.101902 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00651/76290/