Argo Data 1999–2019: Two Million Temperature-Salinity Profiles and Subsurface Velocity Observations From a Global Array of Profiling Floats

Type Article
Date 2020-09
Language English
Author(s) Wong Annie P. S.1, Wijffels Susan E.2, Riser Stephen C.1, Pouliquen SylvieORCID3, Hosoda Shigeki4, Roemmich Dean5, Gilson John5, Johnson Gregory C.6, Martini Kim7, Murphy David J.7, Scanderbeg Megan5, Bhaskar T. V. S. Udaya8, Buck Justin J. H.9, Merceur FredericORCID3, Carval ThierryORCID3, Maze GuillaumeORCID10, Cabanes Cécile10, André Xavier11, Poffa Noe3, Yashayaev Igor12, Barker Paul M.13, Guinehut Stéphanie14, Belbéoch Mathieu15, Ignaszewski Mark16, Baringer Molly O'Neil17, Schmid Claudia17, Lyman John M.6, 18, McTaggart Kristene E.6, Purkey Sarah G.5, Zilberman Nathalie5, Alkire Matthew B.1, Swift Dana1, Owens W. Brechner2, Jayne Steven R.2, Hersh Cora2, Robbins Pelle2, West-Mack Deb2, Bahr Frank2, Yoshida Sachiko2, Sutton Philip J. H.19, Cancouët RomainORCID20, Coatanoan ChristineORCID3, Dobbler Delphine3, Juan Andrea Garcia20, Gourrion Jerome21, Kolodziejczyk NicolasORCID, Bernard Vincent, Bourlès Bernard22, Claustre Hervé23, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio23, Le Reste Serge, Le Traon Pierre-Yves24, Rannou Jean Philippe25, Saout-Grit Carole26, Speich Sabrina27, Thierry VirginieORCID10, Verbrugge Nathalie14, Angel-Benavides Ingrid M., Klein Birgit28, Notarstefano Giulio28, Poulain Pierre-Marie29, Vélez-Belchí Pedro30, Suga Toshio31, Ando Kentaro4, Iwasaska Naoto32, Kobayashi Taiyo4, Masuda Shuhei4, Oka Eitarou33, Sato Kanako4, Nakamura Tomoaki34, Sato Katsunari34, Takatsuki Yasushi34, Yoshida Takashi34, Cowley Rebecca35, Lovell Jenny L.35, Oke Peter R.35, Van Wijk Esmee M.35, 36, Carse Fiona37, Donnelly Matthew9, Gould W. John38, Gowers Katie9, King Brian A.38, Loch Stephen G.9, Mowat Mary39, Turton Jon37, Rama Rao E. Pattabhi8, Ravichandran M.40, Freeland Howard J.41, Gaboury Isabelle42, Gilbert Denis43, Greenan Blair J. W.10, Ouellet Mathieu42, Ross Tetjana41, Tran Anh42, Dong Mingmei44, Liu Zenghong45, Xu Jianping45, Kang Kiryong46, Jo Hyeongjun46, Kim Sung-Dae47, Park Hyuk-Min47
Affiliation(s) 1 : School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
2 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Falmouth, MA, United States
3 : Ifremer, IRSI, Plouzané, France
4 : Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
5 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United States
6 : NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, United States
7 : Sea-Bird Scientific, Bellevue, WA, United States
8 : Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Hyderabad, India
9 : British Oceanographic Data Centre, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool, United Kingdom
10 : University of Brest, Ifremer, CNRS, IRD, LOPS, Plouzané, France
11 : Ifremer, RDT-SIIM, Plouzané, France
12 : Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
13 : School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
14 : Collecte Localisation Satellites, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
15 : JCOMMOPS, Plouzané, France
16 : Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Monterey, CA, United States
17 : NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL, United States
18 : JIMAR, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States
19 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
20 : Euro-Argo ERIC, Plouzané, France
21 : OceanScope, Plouzané, France
22 : IRD, IMAGO, Technopole Pointe du Diable, Plouzané, France
23 : LOV, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
24 : Mercator-Océan International, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
25 : ALTRAN Ouest, Technopole Brest Iroise, Site du Vernis, Brest, France
26 : Glazeo, Nantes, France
27 : LMD-IPSL, Département de Géosciences, ENS, PSL Research University, Paris, France
28 : Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg, Germany
29 : National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Sgonico, Italy
30 : Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Canary Islands, Spain
31 : Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
32 : Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
33 : The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
34 : Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
35 : Oceans and Atmosphere, CSIRO, Hobart, TAS, Australia
36 : Australian Antarctic Program Partnership, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
37 : Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
38 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
39 : British Geological Survey, Nottingham, United Kingdom
40 : National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Goa, India
41 : Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC, Canada
42 : Marine Environmental Data Services, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
43 : Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, QC, Canada
44 : National Marine Data and Information Service, Tianjin, China
45 : State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China
46 : National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Seogwipo, South Korea
47 : Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, South Korea
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2020-09 , Vol. 7 , N. 700 , P. 23p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2020.00700
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) global, ocean, pressure, temperature, salinity, Argo, profiling, floats
Abstract

In the past two decades, the Argo Program has collected, processed, and distributed over two million vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the upper two kilometers of the global ocean. A similar number of subsurface velocity observations near 1,000 dbar have also been collected. This paper recounts the history of the global Argo Program, from its aspiration arising out of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, to the development and implementation of its instrumentation and telecommunication systems, and the various technical problems encountered. We describe the Argo data system and its quality control procedures, and the gradual changes in the vertical resolution and spatial coverage of Argo data from 1999 to 2019. The accuracies of the float data have been assessed by comparison with high-quality shipboard measurements, and are concluded to be 0.002°C for temperature, 2.4 dbar for pressure, and 0.01 PSS-78 for salinity, after delayed-mode adjustments. Finally, the challenges faced by the vision of an expanding Argo Program beyond 2020 are discussed.

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Wong Annie P. S., Wijffels Susan E., Riser Stephen C., Pouliquen Sylvie, Hosoda Shigeki, Roemmich Dean, Gilson John, Johnson Gregory C., Martini Kim, Murphy David J., Scanderbeg Megan, Bhaskar T. V. S. Udaya, Buck Justin J. H., Merceur Frederic, Carval Thierry, Maze Guillaume, Cabanes Cécile, André Xavier, Poffa Noe, Yashayaev Igor, Barker Paul M., Guinehut Stéphanie, Belbéoch Mathieu, Ignaszewski Mark, Baringer Molly O'Neil, Schmid Claudia, Lyman John M., McTaggart Kristene E., Purkey Sarah G., Zilberman Nathalie, Alkire Matthew B., Swift Dana, Owens W. Brechner, Jayne Steven R., Hersh Cora, Robbins Pelle, West-Mack Deb, Bahr Frank, Yoshida Sachiko, Sutton Philip J. H., Cancouët Romain, Coatanoan Christine, Dobbler Delphine, Juan Andrea Garcia, Gourrion Jerome, Kolodziejczyk Nicolas, Bernard Vincent, Bourlès Bernard, Claustre Hervé, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Le Reste Serge, Le Traon Pierre-Yves, Rannou Jean Philippe, Saout-Grit Carole, Speich Sabrina, Thierry Virginie, Verbrugge Nathalie, Angel-Benavides Ingrid M., Klein Birgit, Notarstefano Giulio, Poulain Pierre-Marie, Vélez-Belchí Pedro, Suga Toshio, Ando Kentaro, Iwasaska Naoto, Kobayashi Taiyo, Masuda Shuhei, Oka Eitarou, Sato Kanako, Nakamura Tomoaki, Sato Katsunari, Takatsuki Yasushi, Yoshida Takashi, Cowley Rebecca, Lovell Jenny L., Oke Peter R., Van Wijk Esmee M., Carse Fiona, Donnelly Matthew, Gould W. John, Gowers Katie, King Brian A., Loch Stephen G., Mowat Mary, Turton Jon, Rama Rao E. Pattabhi, Ravichandran M., Freeland Howard J., Gaboury Isabelle, Gilbert Denis, Greenan Blair J. W., Ouellet Mathieu, Ross Tetjana, Tran Anh, Dong Mingmei, Liu Zenghong, Xu Jianping, Kang Kiryong, Jo Hyeongjun, Kim Sung-Dae, Park Hyuk-Min (2020). Argo Data 1999–2019: Two Million Temperature-Salinity Profiles and Subsurface Velocity Observations From a Global Array of Profiling Floats. Frontiers In Marine Science, 7(700), 23p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00700 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00652/76377/