Molluscicidal and parasiticidal activities of Eryngium triquetrum essential oil on Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, a double impact

Type Article
Date 2020-09
Language English
Author(s) de Carvalho Augusto Ronaldo1, 2, Merad Nadjiya3, Rognon Anne1, 2, Gourbal Benjamin1, 2, Bertrand Cédric4, 5, 6, Djabou Nassim3, Duval David1, 2
Affiliation(s) 1 : University Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE, UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Perpignan, France
2 : University Montpellier, IHPE, UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Montpellier, France
3 : Faculté des Sciences, Département de Chimie, Université de Tlemcen, Laboratoire COSNA, Tlemcen, Algeria
4 : EPHE-UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
5 : Laboratoire d’Excellence «CORAIL», Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
6 : S.A.S. AkiNaO, Perpignan, France
Source Parasites & Vectors (1756-3305) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2020-09 , Vol. 13 , N. 1 , P. 486 (11p.)
DOI 10.1186/s13071-020-04367-w
Keyword(s) Biomphalaria glabrata, Eryngium triquetrum, Molluscicide, Oil, Parasiticide, Schistosoma mansoni


Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts of a large variety of trematode flukes such as Schistosoma mansoni responsible for one of the most important parasitic diseases caused by helminths, affecting 67 million people worldwide. Recently, the WHO Global Vector Control Response 2017–2030 (GVCR) programme reinforced its message for safer molluscicides as part of required strategies to strengthen vector control worldwide. Here, we present the essential oil from Eryngium triquetrum as a powerful product with molluscicide and parasiticide effect against S. mansoni and the snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata.


In the present study, we describe using several experimental approaches, the chemical composition of E. triquetrum essential oil extract and its biological effects against the snail B. glabrata and its parasite S. mansoni. Vector and the free-swimming larval stages of the parasite were exposed to different oil concentrations to determine the lethal concentration required to produce a mortality of 50% (LC50) and 90% (LC90). In addition, toxic activity of this essential oil was analyzed against embryos of B. glabrata snails by monitoring egg hatching and snail development. Also, short-time exposure to sublethal molluscicide concentrations on S. mansoni miracidia was performed to test a potential effect on parasite infectivity on snails. Mortality of miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni is complete for 5, 1 and 0.5 ppm of oil extract after 1 and 4 h exposure.


The major chemical component found in E. triquetrum oil determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses is an aliphatic polyacetylene molecule, the falcarinol with 86.9–93.1% of the total composition. The LC50 and LC90 values for uninfected snails were 0.61 and 1.02 ppm respectively for 24 h exposure. At 0.5 ppm, the essential oil was two times more toxic to parasitized snails with a mortality rate of 88.8 ± 4.8%. Moderate embryonic lethal effects were observed at the concentration of 1 ppm. Severe surface damage in miracidia was observed with a general loss of cilia that probably cause their immobility. Miracidia exposed 30 min to low concentration of plant extract (0.1 ppm) were less infective with 3.3% of prevalence compare to untreated with a prevalence of 44%.


Essential oil extracted from E. triquetrum and falcarinol must be considered as a promising product for the development of new interventions for schistosomiasis control and could proceed to be tested on Phase II according to the WHO requirements.

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Figure S1. Effect of short-time exposure to the essential oil extracted from Eryngium triquetrum on uninfected snails. Data are summarised as the mean and standard deviation (SD). ... 26 MB Open access
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de Carvalho Augusto Ronaldo, Merad Nadjiya, Rognon Anne, Gourbal Benjamin, Bertrand Cédric, Djabou Nassim, Duval David (2020). Molluscicidal and parasiticidal activities of Eryngium triquetrum essential oil on Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, a double impact. Parasites & Vectors, 13(1), 486 (11p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :