Planck 2018 results: XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission

Type Article
Date 2020-09
Language English
Author(s) Aghanim N.48, Akrami Y.13, 50, 52, Alves Mir8, 48, 91, Ashdown M.5, 59, Aumont J.91, Baccigalupi C.75, Ballardini M.19, 35, Banday A. J.8, 91, Barreiro R. B.54, Bartolo N.25, 55, Basak S.82, Benabed K.49, 90, Bernard J. -P.8, 91, Bersanelli M.28, 39, Bielewicz P.71, 72, 75, Bock J. J.10, 56, Bond J. R.7, Borrill J.11, 88, Bouchet F. R.49, 85, Boulanger F.48, 49, 84, Bracco A.48, 73, 74, Bucher M.2, 6, Burigana C.26, 38, 41, Calabrese E.79, Cardoso J. -F.49, Carron J.20, Chary R. -R.47, Chiang H. C.6, 22, Colombo L. P. L.28, Combet C.64, Crill B. P.10, 56, Cuttaia F.35, de Bernardis P.27, de Zotti G.36, Delabrouille J.2, Delouis Jean Marc63, Di Valentino E.57, Dickinson C.57, Diego J. M.54, Dore O.10, 56, Douspis M.48, Ducout A.61, Dupac X.31, Efstathiou G.51, 59, Elsner F.68, Ensslin T. A.68, Eriksen H. K.52, Falgarone E.84, Fantaye Y.3, 17, Fernandez-Cobos R.54, Ferriere K.8, 91, Finelli F.35, 41, Forastieri F.26, 42, Frailis M.37, Fraisse A. A.22, Franceschi E.35, Frolov A.83, Galeotta S.37, Galli S.58, Ganga K.2, Genova-Santos R. T.14, 53, Gerbino M.89, Ghosh T.9, 78, Gonzalez-Nuevo J.15, Gorski K. M.56, 92, Gratton S.51, 59, Green G.60, Gruppuso A.35, 41, Gudmundsson J. E.22, 89, Guillet V.48, 62, Handley W.5, 59, Hansen F. K.52, Helou G.10, Herranz D.54, Hivon E.49, 90, Huang Z.80, Jaffe A. H.46, Jones W. C.22, Keihanen E.21, Keskitalo R.11, Kiiveri K.21, 34, Kim J.68, Krachmalnicoff N.75, Kunz M.3, 12, 48, Kurki-Suonio H.21, 34, Lagache G.4, Lamarre J. -M.84, Lasenby A.5, 59, Lattanzi M.26, 42, Lawrence C. R.56, Le Jeune M.2, Levrier F.84, Liguori M.25, 55, Lilje P. B.52, Lindholm V.21, 34, Lopez-Caniego M.31, Lubin Pm23, Ma Y. -Z.57, 70, 77, Macias-Perez J. F.65, 66, Maggio G.37, Maino D.28, 39, 43, Mandolesi N.26, 35, Mangilli A.8, Marcos-Caballero A.54, Maris M.37, Martin Pg7, Martinez-Gonzalez E.54, Matarrese S.25, 33, 55, Mauri N.41, McEwen J. D.69, Melchiorri A.27, 44, Mennella A.28, 39, Migliaccio M.30, 45, Miville-Deschenes M. -A.1, 48, Molinari D.26, 35, 42, Moneti A.49, Montier L.8, 91, Morgante G.35, Moss A.81, Natoli P.26, 42, 87, Pagano L.48, 84, Paoletti D.35, 41, Patanchon G.2, Perrotta F.75, Pettorino V.1, Piacentini F.27, Polastri L.26, 42, Polenta G.87, Puget J. -L.48, 49, Rachen J. P.16, Reinecke M.68, Remazeilles M.57, Renzi A.55, Ristorcelli I.8, 91, Rocha G.10, 57, Rosset C.2, Roudier G.2, 56, 84, Rubino-Martin J. A.14, 53, Ruiz-Granados B.14, 53, Salvati L.48, Sandri M.35, Savelainen M.21, 34, 67, Scott D.18, Sirignano C.25, 55, Sunyaev R.68, 86, Suur-Uski A. -S.21, 34, Tauber J. A.32, Tavagnacco D.29, 37, Tenti M.40, Toffolatti L.15, 35, Tomasi M.28, 39, Trombetti T.38, 42, Valiviita J.21, 34, Vansyngel F.48, Van Tent B.65, 66, Vielva P.54, Villa F.35, Vittorio N.30, Wandelt B. D.24, 49, 90, Wehus I. K.52, Zacchei A.37, Zonca A.76
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris Saclay, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AIM,CEA,CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
2 : Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS, IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
3 : African Inst Math Sci, 6-8 Melrose Rd, Cape Town, South Africa.
4 : Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France.
5 : Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, Astrophys Grp, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England.
6 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Math Stat & Comp Sci, Astrophys & Cosmol Res Unit, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
7 : Univ Toronto, CITA, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.
8 : CNRS, IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
9 : CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
10 : CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
11 : Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Computat Cosmol Ctr, Berkeley, CA USA.
12 : Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Theor, 24 Quai E Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
13 : PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Ecole Normale Super, Dept Phys, 24 Rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris, France.
14 : Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
15 : Univ Oviedo, Dept Fis, C Federico Garcia Lorca 18, Oviedo, Spain.
16 : Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
17 : Univ Stellenbosch, Dept Math, ZA-7602 Stellenbosch, South Africa.
18 : Univ British Columbia, Dept Phys & Astron, 6224 Agr Rd, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
19 : Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.
20 : Univ Sussex, Dept Phys & Astron, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex, England.
21 : Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, Helsinki, Finland.
22 : Princeton Univ, Dept Phys, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
23 : Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Phys, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
24 : Univ Illinois, Dept Phys, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL USA.
25 : Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron G Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
26 : Univ Ferrara, Dipartimento Fis & Sci Terra, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
27 : Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple A Moro 2, Rome, Italy.
28 : Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy.
29 : Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, Via A Valerio 2, Trieste, Italy.
30 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
31 : European Space Agcy, ESAC, Planck Sci Off, Caminobajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
32 : European Space Agcy, Estec, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
33 : INFN, Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Viale F Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.
34 : Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2, Helsinki, Finland.
35 : Ist Nazl Astrofis Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spa, INAF OAS Bologna, Area Ric, CNR, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
36 : Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, Padua, Italy.
37 : Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via GB Tiepolo 11, Trieste, Italy.
38 : Ist Radioastron, INAF, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
39 : IASF Milano, INAF, Via E Bassini 15, Milan, Italy.
40 : CNAF, INFN, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
41 : INFN, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
42 : INFN, Sez Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
43 : INFN, Sez Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy.
44 : Univ Roma Sapienza, INFN, Sez Roma 1, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
45 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sez Roma 2, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
46 : Imperial Coll London, Astrophys Grp, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2AZ, England.
47 : CALTECH, Infrared Proc & Anal Ctr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
48 : Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Bat 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.
49 : CNRS, UMR7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
50 : Leiden Univ, Inst Lorentz, POB 9506, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
51 : Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
52 : Univ Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Oslo, Norway.
53 : Inst Astrofis Canarias, C Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife, Spain.
54 : Univ Cantabria, CSIC, Inst Fis Cantabria, Avda Castros S-N, Santander, Spain.
55 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
56 : CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA USA.
57 : Univ Manchester, Sch Phys & Astron, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Alan Turing Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
58 : Univ Chicago, Kavli Inst Cosmol Phys, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
59 : Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
60 : Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Phys & Astrophys Bldg,452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
61 : Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe Kavli IPMU, WPI, UTIAS, Chiba 2778583, Japan.
62 : Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
63 : Univ Brest, CNRS, IFREMER, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale LOPS,IRD, Brest, France.
64 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Phys Subatom & Cosmol, 53 Rue Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble, France.
65 : Univ Paris Sud 11, Lab Phys Theor, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
66 : CNRS, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
67 : Aalto Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Low Temp Lab, Aalto 00076, Finland.
68 : Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
69 : Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.
70 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, NAOC UKZN Computat Astrophys Ctr NUCAC, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
71 : Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Ul A Soltana 7, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland.
72 : Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
73 : KTH Royal Inst Technol, NORDITA, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
74 : Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
75 : SISSA, Astrophys Sect, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
76 : Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego Supercomp Ctr, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
77 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Chem & Phys, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
78 : HBNI, Natl Inst Sci Educ & Res, Sch Phys Sci, Jatni 752050, Odissa, India.
79 : Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Queens Bldg, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales.
80 : Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, 2 Daxue Rd, Tangjia, Zhuhai, Peoples R China.
81 : Univ Nottingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England.
82 : Indian Inst Sci Educ & Res Thiruvananthapuram, Sch Phys, Maruthamala PO, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, Kerala, India.
83 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Phys, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
84 : Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, Ecole Normale Super,CNRS,LERMA, F-75005 Paris, France.
85 : Sorbonne Univ, UPMC, UMR7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
86 : Russian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IKI, Profsoyuznaya Str 84-32, Moscow 117997, Russia.
87 : Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
88 : Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
89 : Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, AlbaNova, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
90 : UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, 98Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
91 : Univ Toulouse, UPS OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
92 : Univ Warsaw Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
Source Astronomy & Astrophysics (0004-6361) (Edp Sciences S A), 2020-09 , Vol. 641 , N. A12 , P. 43p.
DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201833885
WOS© Times Cited 5
Note Section Interstellar and circumstellar matter
Keyword(s) polarization, magnetic fields, turbulence, dust, extinction, local insterstellar matter, submillimeter: ISM
Abstract Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present full-sky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (one-point statistics) of p and N-H confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing N-H. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(-1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0 - 1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(-1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 3-4 between N-H=10(20) cm(-2) and N-H=2x10(22) cm(-2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with N-H is determined mostly by the magnetic-field structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature T-d, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios, R-P/p and R-S/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(B-V), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.
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Aghanim N., Akrami Y., Alves Mir, Ashdown M., Aumont J., Baccigalupi C., Ballardini M., Banday A. J., Barreiro R. B., Bartolo N., Basak S., Benabed K., Bernard J. -P., Bersanelli M., Bielewicz P., Bock J. J., Bond J. R., Borrill J., Bouchet F. R., Boulanger F., Bracco A., Bucher M., Burigana C., Calabrese E., Cardoso J. -F., Carron J., Chary R. -R., Chiang H. C., Colombo L. P. L., Combet C., Crill B. P., Cuttaia F., de Bernardis P., de Zotti G., Delabrouille J., Delouis Jean Marc, Di Valentino E., Dickinson C., Diego J. M., Dore O., Douspis M., Ducout A., Dupac X., Efstathiou G., Elsner F., Ensslin T. A., Eriksen H. K., Falgarone E., Fantaye Y., Fernandez-Cobos R., Ferriere K., Finelli F., Forastieri F., Frailis M., Fraisse A. A., Franceschi E., Frolov A., Galeotta S., Galli S., Ganga K., Genova-Santos R. T., Gerbino M., Ghosh T., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., Gorski K. M., Gratton S., Green G., Gruppuso A., Gudmundsson J. E., Guillet V., Handley W., Hansen F. K., Helou G., Herranz D., Hivon E., Huang Z., Jaffe A. H., Jones W. C., Keihanen E., Keskitalo R., Kiiveri K., Kim J., Krachmalnicoff N., Kunz M., Kurki-Suonio H., Lagache G., Lamarre J. -M., Lasenby A., Lattanzi M., Lawrence C. R., Le Jeune M., Levrier F., Liguori M., Lilje P. B., Lindholm V., Lopez-Caniego M., Lubin Pm, Ma Y. -Z., Macias-Perez J. F., Maggio G., Maino D., Mandolesi N., Mangilli A., Marcos-Caballero A., Maris M., Martin Pg, Martinez-Gonzalez E., Matarrese S., Mauri N., McEwen J. D., Melchiorri A., Mennella A., Migliaccio M., Miville-Deschenes M. -A., Molinari D., Moneti A., Montier L., Morgante G., Moss A., Natoli P., Pagano L., Paoletti D., Patanchon G., Perrotta F., Pettorino V., Piacentini F., Polastri L., Polenta G., Puget J. -L., Rachen J. P., Reinecke M., Remazeilles M., Renzi A., Ristorcelli I., Rocha G., Rosset C., Roudier G., Rubino-Martin J. A., Ruiz-Granados B., Salvati L., Sandri M., Savelainen M., Scott D., Sirignano C., Sunyaev R., Suur-Uski A. -S., Tauber J. A., Tavagnacco D., Tenti M., Toffolatti L., Tomasi M., Trombetti T., Valiviita J., Vansyngel F., Van Tent B., Vielva P., Villa F., Vittorio N., Wandelt B. D., Wehus I. K., Zacchei A., Zonca A. (2020). Planck 2018 results: XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 641(A12), 43p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201833885 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00654/76632/