Planck 2018 results: IX. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

Type Article
Date 2020-09
Language English
Author(s) Akrami Y.12, 50, 52, Arroja F.54, Ashdown M.4, 59, Aumont J.87, Baccigalupi C.72, Ballardini M.19, 36, Banday A. J.7, 87, Barreiro R. B.55, Bartolo N.24, 56, Basak S.78, Benabed K.49, 82, Bernard J. -P.7, 87, Bersanelli M.27, 40, Bielewicz P.69, 72, Bond J. R.6, Borrill J.10, 85, Bouchet F. R.49, 82, Bucher M.2, 5, Burigana C.25, 39, 42, Butler R. C.36, Calabrese E.75, Cardoso J. -F.49, 82, Casaponsa B.55, Challinor A.9, 51, 55, 59, Chiang H. C.5, 22, Colombo L. P. L.27, Combet C.62, Crill B. P.8, 57, Cuttaia F.36, de Bernardis P.26, de Rosa A.36, de Zotti G.37, Delabrouille J.2, Delouis Jean Marc61, Di Valentino E.58, Diego J. M.55, Dore O.8, 57, Douspis M.48, Ducout A.60, Dupac X.30, Dusini S.56, Efstathiou G.51, 59, Elsner F.66, Ensslin T. A.66, Eriksen H. K.52, Fantaye Y.3, 17, Fergusson J.9, Fernandez-Cobos R.55, Finelli F.36, 42, Frailis M.38, Fraisse A. A.22, Franceschi E.36, Frolov A.80, Galeotta S.38, Galli S.49, 82, Ganga K.2, Genova-Santos R. T.13, 53, Gerbino M.33, Gonzalez-Nuevo J.14, Gorski K. M.57, 89, Gratton S.51, 59, Gruppuso A.36, 42, Gudmundsson J. E.22, 86, Hamann J.79, Handley W.4, 59, Hansen F. K.52, Herranz D.55, Hivon E.49, 82, Huang Z.76, Jaffe A. H.47, Jones W. C.22, Jung G.24, Keihanen E.21, Keskitalo R.10, Kiiveri K.21, 35, Kim J.66, Krachmalnicoff N.72, Kunz M.3, 11, 48, Kurki-Suonio H.21, 35, Lamarre J. -M.81, Lasenby A.4, 59, Lattanzi M.25, 43, Lawrence C. R.57, Le Jeune M.2, Levrier F.81, Lewis A.20, Liguori M.24, 56, Lilje P. B.52, Lindholm V.21, 35, Lopez-Caniego M.30, Ma Y. -Z.68, 71, 74, Macias-Perez J. F.62, Maggio G.38, Maino D.27, 40, 44, Mandolesi N.25, 36, Marcos-Caballero A.55, Maris M.38, Martin Pg6, Martinez-Gonzalez E.55, Matarrese S.24, 32, 56, Mauri N.42, McEwen J. D.67, Meerburg P. D.9, 59, 88, Meinhold P. R.23, Melchiorri A.26, 45, Mennella A.27, 40, Migliaccio M.29, 46, Miville-Deschenes M. -A.1, 48, Molinari D.25, 36, 43, Moneti A.49, 82, Montier L.7, 87, Morgante G.36, Moss A.77, Munchmeyer M.49, Natoli P.25, 43, 84, Oppizzi F.24, Pagano L.25, 43, 48, Paoletti D.36, 42, Partridge B.34, Patanchon G.2, Perrotta F.72, Pettorino V.1, Piacentini F.26, Polenta G.84, Puget J. -L.48, 49, Rachen J. P.15, Racine B.52, Reinecke M.66, Remazeilles M.58, Renzi A.56, Rocha G.8, 57, Rubino-Martin J. A.13, 53, Ruiz-Granados B.13, 53, Salvati L.48, Savelainen M.21, 35, 65, Scott D.18, Shellard E. P. S.9, Shiraishi M.16, 24, 56, Sirignano C.24, 56, Sirri G.42, Smith K.70, Spencer L. D.75, Stanco L.56, Sunyaev R.66, 83, Suur-Uski A. -S.21, 35, Tauber J. A.31, Tavagnacco D.28, 38, Tenti M.41, Toffolatti L.14, 36, Tomasi M.27, 40, Trombetti T.39, 43, Valiviita J.21, 35, Van Tent B.63, 64, Vielva P.55, Villa F.36, Vittorio N.29, Wandelt B. D.49, 82, Wehus I. K.52, Zacchei A.38, Zonca A.73
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, AIM,CEA,Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
2 : Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
3 : African Inst Math Sci, 6-8 Melrose Rd, Cape Town, South Africa.
4 : Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, Astrophys Grp, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England.
5 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Astrophys & Cosmol Res Unit, Sch Math Stat & Comp Sci, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
6 : Univ Toronto, CITA, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.
7 : CNRS, IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
8 : CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
9 : Univ Cambridge, Ctr Theoret Cosmol, DAMTP, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge CB3 0WA, England.
10 : Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Computat Cosmol Ctr, Berkeley, CA USA.
11 : Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Theor, 24 Quai E Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
12 : PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Dept Phys, Ecole Normale Super, 24 Rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris, France.
13 : Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
14 : Univ Oviedo, Dept Fis, C Federico Garcia Lorca 18, Oviedo, Spain.
15 : Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
16 : Natl Inst Technol, Dept Gen Educ, Kagawa Coll, 355 Chokushi Cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 7618058, Japan.
17 : Univ Stellenbosch, Dept Math, ZA-7602 Stellenbosch, South Africa.
18 : Univ British Columbia, Dept Phys & Astron, 6224 Agr Rd, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
19 : Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.
20 : Univ Sussex, Dept Phys & Astron, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex, England.
21 : Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, Helsinki, Finland.
22 : Princeton Univ, Dept Phys, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
23 : Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Phys, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
24 : Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron G Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
25 : Univ Ferrara, Dipartimento Fis & Sci Terra, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
26 : Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple Moro 2, Rome, Italy.
27 : Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy.
28 : Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, Via A Valerio 2, Trieste, Italy.
29 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
30 : European Space Agcy, ESAC, Planck Sci Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
31 : European Space Agcy, Estec, Keplerlaan 1, Noordwijk, Netherlands.
32 : Gran Sasso Sci Inst, INFN, Viale F Crispi 7, I-671003 Laquila, Italy.
33 : Argonne Natl Lab, HEP Div, Lemont, IL 60439 USA.
34 : Haverford Coll, Dept Astron, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA.
35 : Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2, Helsinki, Finland.
36 : INAF OAS Bologna, Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Area Ric,CNR, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
37 : INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, Padua, Italy.
38 : INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, Trieste, Italy.
39 : INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
40 : INAF IASF Milano, Via E Bassini 15, Milan, Italy.
41 : INFN CNAF, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
42 : INFN, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
43 : INFN, Sez Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
44 : INFN, Sez Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy.
45 : Univ Roma Sapienza, INFN, Sez Roma 1, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
46 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sez Roma 2, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
47 : Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, Astrophys Grp, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2AZ, England.
48 : Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Bat 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.
49 : CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR7095, 98Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
50 : Leiden Univ, Inst Lorentz, POB 9506, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
51 : Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
52 : Univ Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Oslo, Norway.
53 : Inst Astrofis Canarias, C Via Lactea S-N, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
54 : Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
55 : Univ Cantabria, CSIC, Inst Fis Cantabria, Avda Castros S-N, Santander, Spain.
56 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucleare, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
57 : CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA USA.
58 : Univ Manchester, Sch Phys & Astron, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Alan Turing Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
59 : Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
60 : Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe, WPI, Chiba 2778583, Japan.
61 : Univ Brest, CNRS, IFREMER, LOPS,IRD, Brest, France.
62 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Phys Subatom & Cosmol, CNRS, IN2P3, 53 Rue Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble, France.
63 : Univ Paris Sud 11, Lab Phys Theor, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
64 : CNRS, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
65 : Aalto Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Low Temp Lab, Espoo 00076, Finland.
66 : Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
67 : Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
68 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, NAOC UKZN Computat Astrophys Ctr NUCAC, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
69 : Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Ul L Pasteura 7, PL-02093 Warsaw, Poland.
70 : Perimeter Inst Theoret Phys, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada.
71 : Purple Mt Observ, 8 Yuan Hua Rd, Nanjing 210034, Peoples R China.
72 : SISSA, Astrophys Sector, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
73 : Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego Supercomp Ctr, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
74 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Chem Phys, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
75 : Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Queens Bldg, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales.
76 : Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, 2 Daxue Rd, Tangjia, Zhuhai, Peoples R China.
77 : Univ Nottingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England.
78 : Indian Inst Sci Educ & Res Thiruvananthapuram, Sch Phys, Maruthamala PO, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, Kerala, India.
79 : Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
80 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Phys, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
81 : Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Ecole Normale Super,CNRS,LERMA, F-75005 Paris, France.
82 : Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR7095, 98Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
83 : Russian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IKI, Profsoyuznaya Str 84-32, Moscow 117997, Russia.
84 : Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
85 : Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.
86 : Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, AlbaNova, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
87 : Univ Toulouse, UPS, OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse, France.
88 : Univ Groningen, Swinderen Inst Particle Phys & Grav, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands.
89 : Univ Warsaw Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
Source Astronomy & Astrophysics (0004-6361) (Edp Sciences S A), 2020-09 , Vol. 641 , N. A9 , P. 47p.
DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201935891
WOS© Times Cited 31
Note Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
Keyword(s) cosmic background radiation, cosmology: observations, cosmology: theory, early Universe, inflation, methods: data analysis
Abstract

We analyse the Planck full-mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). We compare estimates obtained from separable template-fitting, binned, and optimal modal bispectrum estimators, finding consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes. Our combined temperature and polarization analysis produces the following final results: (local)(NL) = -0.9 +/- 5.1 f NL local = - 0.9 +/- 5.1 ; f(NL)(equil) = -26 +/- 47 f NL equil = - 26 +/- 47 ; and f(NL)(ortho) = -38 +/- 24 f NL ortho = - 38 +/- 24 (68% CL, statistical). These results include low-multipole (4 <= l< 40) polarization data that are not included in our previous analysis. The results also pass an extensive battery of tests (with additional tests regarding foreground residuals compared to 2015), and they are stable with respect to our 2015 measurements (with small fluctuations, at the level of a fraction of a standard deviation, which is consistent with changes in data processing). Polarization-only bispectra display a significant improvement in robustness; they can now be used independently to set primordial NG constraints with a sensitivity comparable to WMAP temperature-based results and they give excellent agreement. In addition to the analysis of the standard local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum shapes, we consider a large number of additional cases, such as scale-dependent feature and resonance bispectra, isocurvature primordial NG, and parity-breaking models, where we also place tight constraints but do not detect any signal. The non-primordial lensing bispectrum is, however, detected with an improved significance compared to 2015, excluding the null hypothesis at 3.5. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we also present model-independent reconstructions and analyses of the Planck CMB bispectrum. Our final constraint on the local primordial trispectrum shape is g(NL)(local) = (-5.8 +/- 6.5) x 10(4) g NL local = ( - 5.8 +/- 6.5 ) x 10 4 (68% CL, statistical), while constraints for other trispectrum shapes are also determined. Exploiting the tight limits on various bispectrum and trispectrum shapes, we constrain the parameter space of different early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, multi-field models (e.g. curvaton models), models of inflation with axion fields producing parity-violation bispectra in the tensor sector, and inflationary models involving vector-like fields with directionally-dependent bispectra. Our results provide a high-precision test for structure-formation scenarios, showing complete agreement with the basic picture of the Lambda CDM cosmology regarding the statistics of the initial conditions, with cosmic structures arising from adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.

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Akrami Y., Arroja F., Ashdown M., Aumont J., Baccigalupi C., Ballardini M., Banday A. J., Barreiro R. B., Bartolo N., Basak S., Benabed K., Bernard J. -P., Bersanelli M., Bielewicz P., Bond J. R., Borrill J., Bouchet F. R., Bucher M., Burigana C., Butler R. C., Calabrese E., Cardoso J. -F., Casaponsa B., Challinor A., Chiang H. C., Colombo L. P. L., Combet C., Crill B. P., Cuttaia F., de Bernardis P., de Rosa A., de Zotti G., Delabrouille J., Delouis Jean Marc, Di Valentino E., Diego J. M., Dore O., Douspis M., Ducout A., Dupac X., Dusini S., Efstathiou G., Elsner F., Ensslin T. A., Eriksen H. K., Fantaye Y., Fergusson J., Fernandez-Cobos R., Finelli F., Frailis M., Fraisse A. A., Franceschi E., Frolov A., Galeotta S., Galli S., Ganga K., Genova-Santos R. T., Gerbino M., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., Gorski K. M., Gratton S., Gruppuso A., Gudmundsson J. E., Hamann J., Handley W., Hansen F. K., Herranz D., Hivon E., Huang Z., Jaffe A. H., Jones W. C., Jung G., Keihanen E., Keskitalo R., Kiiveri K., Kim J., Krachmalnicoff N., Kunz M., Kurki-Suonio H., Lamarre J. -M., Lasenby A., Lattanzi M., Lawrence C. R., Le Jeune M., Levrier F., Lewis A., Liguori M., Lilje P. B., Lindholm V., Lopez-Caniego M., Ma Y. -Z., Macias-Perez J. F., Maggio G., Maino D., Mandolesi N., Marcos-Caballero A., Maris M., Martin Pg, Martinez-Gonzalez E., Matarrese S., Mauri N., McEwen J. D., Meerburg P. D., Meinhold P. R., Melchiorri A., Mennella A., Migliaccio M., Miville-Deschenes M. -A., Molinari D., Moneti A., Montier L., Morgante G., Moss A., Munchmeyer M., Natoli P., Oppizzi F., Pagano L., Paoletti D., Partridge B., Patanchon G., Perrotta F., Pettorino V., Piacentini F., Polenta G., Puget J. -L., Rachen J. P., Racine B., Reinecke M., Remazeilles M., Renzi A., Rocha G., Rubino-Martin J. A., Ruiz-Granados B., Salvati L., Savelainen M., Scott D., Shellard E. P. S., Shiraishi M., Sirignano C., Sirri G., Smith K., Spencer L. D., Stanco L., Sunyaev R., Suur-Uski A. -S., Tauber J. A., Tavagnacco D., Tenti M., Toffolatti L., Tomasi M., Trombetti T., Valiviita J., Van Tent B., Vielva P., Villa F., Vittorio N., Wandelt B. D., Wehus I. K., Zacchei A., Zonca A. (2020). Planck 2018 results: IX. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 641(A9), 47p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935891 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00654/76635/