Centrodinium punctatum (Dinophyceae) produces significant levels of saxitoxin and related analogs

Type Article
Date 2020-12
Language English
Author(s) Shin Hyeon Ho1, Li Zhun2, Réveillon DamienORCID3, Rovillon Georges-Augustin3, Mertens KennethORCID4, Hess PhilippORCID3, Kim Hyun Jung1, Lee Jihoon5, Lee Kyun-Woo5, Kim Daekyung6, Park Bum Soo7, Hwang Jinik8, Seo Min Ho9, Lim Weol Ae10
Affiliation(s) 1 : Library of Marine Samples, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Geoje 656-830, Republic of Korea
2 : Biological Resource Center/Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeonbuk 56212, Republic of Korea
3 : Ifremer, DYNECO, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, Nantes 03, F‐44311, France
4 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, LER BO, Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, BP40537, F-29185 Concarneau Cedex, France
5 : Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan 49111, Republic of Korea
6 : Daegu Center, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Daegu, Republic of Korea
7 : Marine Ecosystem Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan 49111, Republic of Korea
8 : Environment and Resource Convergence Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea
9 : Marine Ecology Research Center, Yeosu 59697, Republic of Korea
10 : National Institute of Fisheries Science, Busan, 619-705, Republic of Korea
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2020-12 , Vol. 100 , P. 101923 (6p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101923
WOS© Times Cited 14
Keyword(s) Dinoflagellate, Alexandrium, PST, STX, neoSTX, Gonyautoxin

Centrodinium punctatum is a fusiform dinoflagellate with a global marine distribution. Due to a close phylogenetic relationship of one C. punctatum strain to Alexandrium species, toxin production of this C. punctatum strain was assessed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profile of C. punctatum was dominated by six analogs, i.e. STX (30%), GTX-1 (20%) and neoSTX (24%), followed by GTX-2 (9%), GTX-4 (9%) and GTX-3 (8%); deoxy-STX was also putatively identified while no gymnodimines, spirolides or goniodomins were detected. This is the first record of C. punctatum producing saxitoxins. The estimated cellular toxicity was rather elevated, between 91 and 212 pg cell−1 (or 259 and 601 fmol cell−1). When considering the toxicity equivalent factors, results suggest that this species can produce high cellular toxicity compared to other STX-producing dinoflagellates. Morphological details of the sulcal area and the hypotheca of Centrodinium punctatum were re-examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); this revealed that in the sulcal area, the left posterior sulcal plate (Ssp) is larger and longer than the left posterior sulcal plate and extended into the hypotheca. Based on the morphological observation, a revised interpretation of the sulcus and hypotheca is proposed.

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Shin Hyeon Ho, Li Zhun, Réveillon Damien, Rovillon Georges-Augustin, Mertens Kenneth, Hess Philipp, Kim Hyun Jung, Lee Jihoon, Lee Kyun-Woo, Kim Daekyung, Park Bum Soo, Hwang Jinik, Seo Min Ho, Lim Weol Ae (2020). Centrodinium punctatum (Dinophyceae) produces significant levels of saxitoxin and related analogs. Harmful Algae, 100, 101923 (6p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2020.101923 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00658/77025/