Multidisciplinary Observing in the World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate to Fish - The VOICE Initiative
|Author(s)||Garcon Veronique1, Karstensen Johannes2, Palacz Artur3, Telszewski Maciej3, Aparco Lara Tony4, Breitburg Denise5, Chavez Francisco6, Coelho Paulo7, Cornejo-D'Ottone Marcela8, 9, Santos Carmen10, Fiedler Bjoern2, Gallo Natalya D.11, 12, Gregoire Marilaure13, Gutierrez Dimitri14, 15, Hernandez-Ayon Martin16, Isensee Kirsten17, Koslow Tony11, Levin Lisa11, 12, Marsac Francis18, Maske Helmut19, Mbaye Baye C.20, Montes Ivonne21, Naqvi Wajih22, Pearlman Jay23, Pinto Edwin24, Pitcher Grant25, 26, Pizarro Oscar27, 28, Rose Kenneth29, Shenoy Damodar30, Van Der Plas Anja31, Vito Melo R.32, Weng Kevin33|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : CNRS, Lab Etud Geophys & Oceanog Spatiales, Toulouse, France.
2 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
3 : Polish Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Int Ocean Carbon Coordinat Project, Sopot, Poland.
4 : Univ Nacl Mayor San Marcos, Fac Ciencias Fis, Lima, Peru.
5 : Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
6 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
7 : Inst Nacl Invest Pesqueira & Marinha, Luanda, Angola.
8 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Escuela Ciencias Mar, Valparaiso, Chile.
9 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Milenio Oceanog, Valparaiso, Chile.
10 : Univ Agostinho Neto, Fac Ciencias, Luanda, Angola.
11 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, Integrat Oceanog Div, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
12 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, Ctr Marine Biodivers & Conservat, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
13 : Univ Liege, Fac Sci, Dept Astrophys Geophys & Oceanog, Liege, Belgium.
14 : Inst Mar Peru IMARPE, Direcc Gen Invest Oceanog & Camblo Climat, Callao, Peru.
15 : Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Programa Maestrla Ciencias Mar, Lima, Peru.
16 : Univ Autonoma Baja California, Inst Invest Oceanol, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
17 : UNESCO, Intergovt Oceanog Commiss, Paris, France.
18 : Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, UMR 9190,Ctr Biodiversite Marine Exploitat & Cons, Sete, France.
19 : Ctr Invest Cient & Educ Super Ensenada, Dept Oceanog Biol, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
20 : Univ Cheikh Anta Diop, Lab Atmospher & Ocean Phys, Dakar, Senegal.
21 : Inst Geofis Peru, Lima, Peru.
22 : CSIR, New Delhi, India.
23 : Inst Elect & Elect Engineers France, Paris, France.
24 : Inst Oceanog, Base Naval Sur, Inst Oceanog Armada Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
25 : Fisheries Res & Dev, Dept Agr Forestry & Fisheries, Cape Town, South Africa.
26 : Univ Cape Town, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Cape Town, South Africa.
27 : Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias Fis & Matemat, Dept Geophys, Concepcion, Chile.
28 : Univ Concepcion, Millennium Inst Oceanog, Concepcion, Chile.
29 : Univ Maryland, Ctr Environm Sci, Horn Point Lab, Cambridge, MD USA.
30 : CSIR Natl Inst Oceanog, Panaji, India.
31 : Minist Fisheries & Marine Resources, Subdiv Environm, Swakopmund, Namibia.
32 : INDP, Mindelo, Cape Verde.
33 : Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Coll William & Mary, Dept Fisheries Sci, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
|Source||Frontiers In Marine Science (Frontiers Media Sa), 2019-12 , Vol. 6 , P. 722 (22p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||10|
|Keyword(s)||oxygen minimum zones, oxycline, ocean observing system, multidisciplinary, readiness level, ecosystem|
Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, VOICE creates a roadmap toward observation-model syntheses for a comprehensive understanding of selected oxycline-dependent objectives. Local to global effects, such as habitat compression or deoxygenation trends, prompt for comprehensive observing of the oxycline on various space and time scales, and for an increased awareness of its impact on ecosystem services. Building on the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), we present a first readiness level assessment for ocean observing of the oxycline in EBS. This was to determine current ocean observing design and future needs in EBS regions (e.g., the California Current System, the Equatorial Eastern Pacific off Ecuador, the Peru-Chile Current system, the Northern Benguela off Namibia, etc.) building on the FOO strategy. We choose regional champions to assess the ocean observing design elements proposed in the FOO, namely, requirement processes, coordination of observational elements, and data management and information products and the related best practices. The readiness level for the FOO elements was derived for each EBS through a similar and very general ad hoc questionnaire. Despite some weaknesses in the questionnaire design and its completion, an assessment was achievable. We found that fisheries and ecosystem management are a societal requirement for all regions, but maturity levels of observational elements and data management and information products differ substantially. Identification of relevant stakeholders, developing strategies for readiness level improvements, and building and sustaining infrastructure capacity to implement these strategies are fundamental milestones for the VOICE initiative over the next 2-5 years and beyond.