A Pan-Amazonian species delimitation: high species diversity within the genus Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae)

Type Article
Date 2018-07
Language English
Author(s) Rojas Rommel R.ORCID1, Fouquet Antoine2, Ron Santiago R.3, Hernandez-Ruz Emil Jose4, Melo-Sampaio Paulo R.5, Chaparro Juan C.6, 7, Vogt Richard C.8, de Carvalho Vinicius Tadeu1, 9, Pinheiro Leandra Cardoso10, Avila Robson W.9, Farias Izeni PiresORCID1, Gordo Marcelo11, Hrbek TomasORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Fed Amazonas, Dept Genet, ICB, Lab Evolut & Anim Genet, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
2 : Ctr Rech Montabo, Lab Ecol Evolut & Interact Syst Amazoniens, Cayenne, French Guiana.
3 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Ecuador, Museo Zool, Escuela Biol, Quito, Ecuador.
4 : Univ Fed Para, Campus Univ Altamira, Fac Ciencias Biol, Lab Zool, Altamira, Para, Brazil.
5 : Museu Nacl, Dept Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
6 : Museo Biodiversidad, Colecc Anfibios & Reptiles, Cuzco, Peru.
7 : Univ Nacl San Antonio Abad, Museo Hist Nat, Cuzco, Peru.
8 : Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao Biodiversidade, CEQUA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
9 : Univ Reg Cariri, Ctr Ciencias Biol & Saude, Dept Ciencias Biol, Crato, Ceara, Brazil.
10 : Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para, Brazil.
11 : Univ Fed Amazonas, Dept Biol, ICB, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
Source Peerj (2167-8359) (Peerj Inc), 2018-07 , Vol. 6 , P. e4941 (56p.)
DOI 10.7717/peerj.4941
WOS© Times Cited 44
Keyword(s) Integrative taxonomy, Cryptic diversity, Species delimitation, Amphibians, Amazon

Amphibians are probably the most vulnerable group to climate change and climate-change associate diseases. This ongoing biodiversity crisis makes it thus imperative to improve the taxonomy of anurans in biodiverse but understudied areas such as Amazonia. In this study, we applied robust integrative taxonomic methods combining genetic (mitochondrial 16S, 12S and COI genes), morphological and environmental data to delimit species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae) sampled from throughout their pan-Amazonian distribution. Our study confirms the hypothesis that the species diversity of the genus is grossly underestimated. Our analyses suggest the existence of eighteen linages of which seven are nominal species, three Deep Conspecific Lineages, one Unconfirmed Candidate Species, three Uncategorized Lineages, and four Confirmed Candidate Species and described herein. We also propose a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus and discuss its implications for historical biogeography of this Amazonian group.

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Rojas Rommel R., Fouquet Antoine, Ron Santiago R., Hernandez-Ruz Emil Jose, Melo-Sampaio Paulo R., Chaparro Juan C., Vogt Richard C., de Carvalho Vinicius Tadeu, Pinheiro Leandra Cardoso, Avila Robson W., Farias Izeni Pires, Gordo Marcelo, Hrbek Tomas (2018). A Pan-Amazonian species delimitation: high species diversity within the genus Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae). Peerj, 6, e4941 (56p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4941 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00660/77219/