A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program

Type Article
Date 2020-11
Language English
Author(s) Howell Kerry L.1, Hilário Ana2, Allcock A. Louise3, Bailey David M.4, Baker Maria5, Clark Malcolm R.6, Colaço Ana7, Copley Jon5, Cordes Erik E.8, Danovaro Roberto9, Dissanayake Awantha10, Escobar Elva11, Esquete Patricia2, Gallagher Austin J.12, Gates Andrew R.13, Gaudron Sylvie M.14, 15, German Christopher R.16, Gjerde Kristina M.17, Higgs Nicholas D.18, Le Bris Nadine19, Levin Lisa A.20, Manea Elisabetta21, McClain Craig22, Menot LenaickORCID23, Mestre Nelia C.24, Metaxas Anna25, Milligan Rosanna J.26, Muthumbi Agnes W. N.27, Narayanaswamy Bhavani E.28, Ramalho Sofia P.2, Ramirez-Llodra Eva29, 30, Robson Laura M.31, Rogers Alex D.30, Sellanes Javier32, Sigwart Julia D.33, Sink Kerry34, 35, Snelgrove Paul V. R.36, Stefanoudis Paris V.37, 38, Sumida Paulo Y.39, Taylor Michelle L.40, Thurber Andrew R.41, Vieira Rui P.42, Watanabe Hiromi K.43, Woodall Lucy C.37, 38, Xavier Joana R.44, 45
Affiliation(s) 1 : School of Biological and Marine Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom
2 : CESAM and Biology Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
3 : Ryan Institute and School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
4 : Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
5 : School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
6 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
7 : Instituto do Mar, and Instituto de Investigação em Ciências do Mar – Okeanos, Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal
8 : Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States
9 : Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona and Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy
10 : University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar
11 : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, Mexico
12 : Beneath the Waves, Herndon, VA, United States
13 : National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, United Kingdom
14 : UMR 8187 Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences (LOG), Université de Lille, ULCO, CNRS, Lille, France
15 : Sorbonne Université, UFR 927, Paris, France
16 : Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
17 : Global Marine Program, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cambridge, MA, United States
18 : Cape Eleuthera Institute, Eleuthera, Bahamas
19 : Oceanological Observatory Banyuls, Sorbonne University, Paris, France
20 : Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
21 : Institute of Marine Science, National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR), Venice, Italy
22 : Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin, LA, United States
23 : DEEP/LEP, Brest, Ifremer, Plouzane, France
24 : CIMA – Centro de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal
25 : Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
26 : Halmos College of Arts and Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, FL, United States
27 : School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
28 : Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, United Kingdom
29 : Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway
30 : REV Ocean, Lysaker, Norway
31 : Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, United Kingdom
32 : Departamento de Biologia Marina and Nucleo Milenio ESMOI, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
33 : Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt, Germany
34 : Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa
35 : Institute for Coastal and Marine Research, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
36 : Department of Ocean Sciences and Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada
37 : Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
38 : Nekton Foundation, Oxford, United Kingdom
39 : Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
40 : School of Life Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom
41 : College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences and Department of Microbiology, College of Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States
42 : Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, United Kingdom
43 : X-STAR, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
44 : Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Matosinhos, Portugal
45 : Department of Biological Sciences, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Deep Sea Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2020-11 , Vol. 7 , P. 584861 (25p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2020.584861
WOS© Times Cited 44
Keyword(s) deep sea, blue economy, Ocean Decade, Biodivercity, essential ocean variables

The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Roadmap for the Ocean Decade aims to achieve six critical societal outcomes (SOs) by 2030, through the pursuit of four objectives (Os). It specifically recognizes the scarcity of biological data for deep-sea biomes, and challenges the global scientific community to conduct research to advance understanding of deep-sea ecosystems to inform sustainable management. In this paper, we map four key scientific questions identified by the academic community to the Ocean Decade SOs: (i) What is the diversity of life in the deep ocean? (ii) How are populations and habitats connected? (iii) What is the role of living organisms in ecosystem function and service provision? and (iv) How do species, communities, and ecosystems respond to disturbance? We then consider the design of a global-scale program to address these questions by reviewing key drivers of ecological pattern and process. We recommend using the following criteria to stratify a global survey design: biogeographic region, depth, horizontal distance, substrate type, high and low climate hazard, fished/unfished, near/far from sources of pollution, licensed/protected from industry activities. We consider both spatial and temporal surveys, and emphasize new biological data collection that prioritizes southern and polar latitudes, deeper (> 2000 m) depths, and midwater environments. We provide guidance on observational, experimental, and monitoring needs for different benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We then review recent efforts to standardize biological data and specimen collection and archiving, making “sampling design to knowledge application” recommendations in the context of a new global program. We also review and comment on needs, and recommend actions, to develop capacity in deep-sea research; and the role of inclusivity - from accessing indigenous and local knowledge to the sharing of technologies - as part of such a global program. We discuss the concept of a new global deep-sea biological research program ‘Challenger 150,’ highlighting what it could deliver for the Ocean Decade and UN Sustainable Development Goal 14.

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Howell Kerry L., Hilário Ana, Allcock A. Louise, Bailey David M., Baker Maria, Clark Malcolm R., Colaço Ana, Copley Jon, Cordes Erik E., Danovaro Roberto, Dissanayake Awantha, Escobar Elva, Esquete Patricia, Gallagher Austin J., Gates Andrew R., Gaudron Sylvie M., German Christopher R., Gjerde Kristina M., Higgs Nicholas D., Le Bris Nadine, Levin Lisa A., Manea Elisabetta, McClain Craig, Menot Lenaick, Mestre Nelia C., Metaxas Anna, Milligan Rosanna J., Muthumbi Agnes W. N., Narayanaswamy Bhavani E., Ramalho Sofia P., Ramirez-Llodra Eva, Robson Laura M., Rogers Alex D., Sellanes Javier, Sigwart Julia D., Sink Kerry, Snelgrove Paul V. R., Stefanoudis Paris V., Sumida Paulo Y., Taylor Michelle L., Thurber Andrew R., Vieira Rui P., Watanabe Hiromi K., Woodall Lucy C., Xavier Joana R. (2020). A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program. Frontiers In Marine Science, 7, 584861 (25p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.584861 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00666/77768/