Planck intermediate results: LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

Type Article
Date 2020-12
Language English
Author(s) Akrami Y.12, 43, 44, Ashdown M.4, 51, Aumont J.75, Baccigalupi C.63, Ballardini M.17, 32, Banday A. J.8, 75, Barreiro R. B.47, Bartolo N.20, 48, Basak S.68, Benabed K.42, 70, Bernard J-P8, 75, Bersanelli M.23, 36, Bielewicz P.61, 63, Bond J. R.6, Borrill J.10, 73, Bouchet F. R.42, 70, Burigana C.21, 35, 38, Calabrese E.66, Carvalho P.7, Chiang H. C.5, 19, Crill B. P.9, 49, Cuttaia F.32, de Rosa A.32, de Zotti G.33, Delabrouille J.2, Delouis Jean MarcORCID52, Di Valentino E.50, Diego J. M.47, Dupac X.26, Dusini S.48, Efstathiou G.44, 51, Elsner F.58, Ensslin T. A.58, Eriksen H. K.45, Fernandez-Cobos R.47, Finelli F.32, 38, Fraisse A. A.19, Franceschi E.32, Frolov A.69, Galeotta S.34, Ganga K.2, Gerbino M.29, Gonzalez-Nuevo J.14, Gorski K. M.49, 76, Gratton S.44, 51, Gruppuso A.32, 38, Gudmundsson J. E.19, 74, Handley W.4, 51, Hansen F. K.45, Herranz D.47, Hivon E.42, 70, Hobson M.4, Huang Z.67, Jones W. C.19, Keihanen E.18, Keskitalo R.10, Kim J.58, Kisner T. S.56, Krachmalnicoff N.63, Kunz M.3, 11, 41, Kurki-Suonio H.18, 31, Lamarre J-M71, Lasenby A.4, 51, Lattanzi M.21, 39, Lawrence C. R.49, Le Jeune M2, Levrier F.71, Lilje P. B.45, Lindholm V18, 31, Lopez-Caniego M.26, Ma Y-Z60, 62, 65, Macias-Perez J. F.53, Maggio G.34, Mandolesi N.21, 32, Marcos-Caballero A.47, Maris M.34, Martin Pg6, Martinez-Gonzalez E.47, Matarrese S.20, 28, 48, Mauri N.38, McEwen J. D.59, Migliaccio M.25, 40, Molinari D.21, 32, 39, Moneti A.42, 70, Montier L.8, 75, Morgante G.32, Natoli P.21, 39, 72, Paoletti D.32, 38, Partridge B.30, Perrotta F.63, Pettorino V1, Piacentini F.22, Polenta G.72, Puget J-L41, 42, Rachen J. P.15, Reinecke M.58, Remazeilles M.50, Renzi A.48, Rocha G.9, 49, Roudier G.2, 49, 71, Ruiz-Granados B.13, 46, Savelainen M.18, 31, 57, Scott D.16, Sirri G.38, Spencer L. D.66, Suur-Uski A-S18, 31, Tauber J. A.27, Tavagnacco D.24, 34, Tenti M.37, Toffolatti L.14, 32, Tomasi M.23, 36, Trombetti T.35, 39, Valiviita J.18, 31, Van Tent B.54, 55, Vielva P.47, Villa F.32, Wehus I. K.45, Zacchei A.34, Zonca A.64
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris Saclay, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
2 : Univ Paris Diderot, APC, CNRS,IN2P3, CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,AstroPa, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris, France.
3 : African Inst Math Sci, 6-8 Melrose Rd, Cape Town, South Africa.
4 : Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, Astrophys Grp, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England.
5 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Math Stat & Comp Sci, Astrophys & Cosmol Res Unit, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
6 : Univ Toronto, CITA, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.
7 : Cambridge Machines Deep Learning & Bayesian Syst, CMDLABS, 22 Wycombe End, Beaconsfield HP9 1NB, Bucks, England.
8 : IRAP, CNRS, 9 Av Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse, France.
9 : CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
10 : Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Computat Cosmol Ctr, Berkeley, CA USA.
11 : Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Theor, 24 Quai E Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
12 : PSL Res Univ, Ecole Normale Super, Dept Phys, CNRS, 24 Rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris, France.
13 : Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.
14 : Univ Oviedo, Dept Fis, C Federico Garcia Lorca 18, Oviedo, Spain.
15 : Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
16 : Univ British Columbia, Dept Phys & Astron, 6224 Agr Rd, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
17 : Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.
18 : Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, Helsinki, Finland.
19 : Princeton Univ, Dept Phys, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
20 : Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron G Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
21 : Univ Ferrara, Dipartimento Fis & Sci Terra, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
22 : Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple A Moro 2, Rome, Italy.
23 : Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, Via Celoria 16, Milan, Italy.
24 : Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, Via A Valerio 2, Trieste, Italy.
25 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
26 : European Space Agcy, ESAC, Planck Sci Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
27 : Estec, European Space Agcy, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
28 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Viale F Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.
29 : Argonne Natl Lab, HEP Div, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
30 : Haverford Coll, Astron Dept, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA.
31 : Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Phys, Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2, Helsinki, Finland.
32 : CNR, Ist Nazl Astrofis, INAF OAS Bologna, Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna,Area Ric, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
33 : INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, Padua, Italy.
34 : INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, Trieste, Italy.
35 : INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
36 : INAF IASF Milano, Via E Bassini 15, Milan, Italy.
37 : INFN CNAF, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
38 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
39 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy.
40 : Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 2, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy.
41 : Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, CNRS, Bat 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.
42 : Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS UMR7095, 98 Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
43 : Leiden Univ, Inst Lorentz, POB 9506, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
44 : Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
45 : Univ Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Oslo, Norway.
46 : Inst Astrofis Canarias, C Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife, Spain.
47 : Univ Cantabria, CSIC, Inst Fis Cantabria, Avda Castros S-N, Santander, Spain.
48 : Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
49 : CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA USA.
50 : Univ Manchester, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Sch Phys & Astron, Alan Turing Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
51 : Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
52 : Univ Brest, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale LOPS, IFREMER, CNRS,IRD, Brest, France.
53 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Phys Subatom & Cosmol, CNRS, IN2P3, Rue Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble, France.
54 : Univ Paris Sud 11, Lab Phys Theor, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
55 : CNRS, Batiment 210, F-91405 Orsay, France.
56 : Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.
57 : Aalto Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Low Temp Lab, Espoo 00076, Finland.
58 : Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
59 : Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
60 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, NAOC UKZN Computat Astrophys Ctr NUCAC, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
61 : Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Ul L Pasteura 7, PL-02093 Warsaw, Poland.
62 : Purple Mt Observ, 8 Yuan Hua Rd, Nanjing 210034, Peoples R China.
63 : SISSA, Astrophys Sect, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
64 : Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego Supercomp Ctr, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
65 : Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Chem & Phys, Westville Campus,Private Bag X54001, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa.
66 : Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Queens Bldg, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales.
67 : Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, 2 Daxue Rd, Tangjia, Zhuhai, Peoples R China.
68 : Indian Inst Sci Educ & Res Thiruvananthapuram, Sch Phys, Maruthamala PO, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, Kerala, India.
69 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Phys, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
70 : Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
71 : Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, LERMA,CNRS,Ecole Normale Super, F-75005 Paris, France.
72 : Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
73 : Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
74 : Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Dept Phys, AlbaNova, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
75 : Univ Toulouse, IRAP, UPS OMP, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
76 : Univ Warsaw Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
Source Astronomy & Astrophysics (0004-6361) (Edp Sciences S A), 2020-12 , Vol. 644 , N. A99 , P. 53p.
DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201936794
Note Section Catalogs and data
Keyword(s) catalogs, cosmology: observations, submillimeter: general
Abstract

We describe an extension of the most recent version of the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS2), produced using a new multi-band Bayesian Extraction and Estimation Package (BeeP). BeeP assumes that the compact sources present in PCCS2 at 857 GHz have a dust-like spectral energy distribution (SED), which leads to emission at both lower and higher frequencies, and adjusts the parameters of the source and its SED to fit the emission observed in Planck's three highest frequency channels at 353, 545, and 857 GHz, as well as the IRIS map at 3000 GHz. In order to reduce confusion regarding diffuse cirrus emission, BeeP's data model includes a description of the background emission surrounding each source, and it adjusts the confidence in the source parameter extraction based on the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of the background emission. BeeP produces the following three new sets of parameters for each source: (a) fits to a modified blackbody (MBB) thermal emission model of the source; (b) SED-independent source flux densities at each frequency considered; and (c) fits to an MBB model of the background in which the source is embedded. BeeP also calculates, for each source, a reliability parameter, which takes into account confusion due to the surrounding cirrus. This parameter can be used to extract sub-samples of high-frequency sources with statistically well-understood properties. We define a high-reliability subset (BeeP/base), containing 26 083 sources (54.1% of the total PCCS2 catalogue), the majority of which have no information on reliability in the PCCS2. We describe the characteristics of this specific high-quality subset of PCCS2 and its validation against other data sets, specifically for: the sub-sample of PCCS2 located in low-cirrus areas; the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps; the Herschel GAMA15-field catalogue; and the temperature- and spectral-index-reconstructed dust maps obtained with Planck's Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination method. The results of the BeeP extension of PCCS2, which are made publicly available via the Planck Legacy Archive, will enable the study of the thermal properties of well-defined samples of compact Galactic and extragalactic dusty sources.

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Akrami Y., Ashdown M., Aumont J., Baccigalupi C., Ballardini M., Banday A. J., Barreiro R. B., Bartolo N., Basak S., Benabed K., Bernard J-P, Bersanelli M., Bielewicz P., Bond J. R., Borrill J., Bouchet F. R., Burigana C., Calabrese E., Carvalho P., Chiang H. C., Crill B. P., Cuttaia F., de Rosa A., de Zotti G., Delabrouille J., Delouis Jean Marc, Di Valentino E., Diego J. M., Dupac X., Dusini S., Efstathiou G., Elsner F., Ensslin T. A., Eriksen H. K., Fernandez-Cobos R., Finelli F., Fraisse A. A., Franceschi E., Frolov A., Galeotta S., Ganga K., Gerbino M., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., Gorski K. M., Gratton S., Gruppuso A., Gudmundsson J. E., Handley W., Hansen F. K., Herranz D., Hivon E., Hobson M., Huang Z., Jones W. C., Keihanen E., Keskitalo R., Kim J., Kisner T. S., Krachmalnicoff N., Kunz M., Kurki-Suonio H., Lamarre J-M, Lasenby A., Lattanzi M., Lawrence C. R., Le Jeune M, Levrier F., Lilje P. B., Lindholm V, Lopez-Caniego M., Ma Y-Z, Macias-Perez J. F., Maggio G., Mandolesi N., Marcos-Caballero A., Maris M., Martin Pg, Martinez-Gonzalez E., Matarrese S., Mauri N., McEwen J. D., Migliaccio M., Molinari D., Moneti A., Montier L., Morgante G., Natoli P., Paoletti D., Partridge B., Perrotta F., Pettorino V, Piacentini F., Polenta G., Puget J-L, Rachen J. P., Reinecke M., Remazeilles M., Renzi A., Rocha G., Roudier G., Ruiz-Granados B., Savelainen M., Scott D., Sirri G., Spencer L. D., Suur-Uski A-S, Tauber J. A., Tavagnacco D., Tenti M., Toffolatti L., Tomasi M., Trombetti T., Valiviita J., Van Tent B., Vielva P., Villa F., Wehus I. K., Zacchei A., Zonca A. (2020). Planck intermediate results: LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 644(A99), 53p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936794 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00666/77840/