Ocean Climate Observing Requirements in Support of Climate Research and Climate Information

Type Article
Date 2019-07
Language English
Author(s) Stammer Detlef1, Bracco AnnalisaORCID2, Achutarao Krishna3, Beal Lisa4, Bindoff Nathaniel L.5, 6, Braconnot Pascale7, Cai Wenju8, Chen Dake9, Collins MatthewORCID10, Danabasoglu GokhanORCID11, Dewitte BorisORCID12, 13, 14, 15, Farneti Riccardo16, Fox-Kemper BaylorORCID17, Fyfe John18, Griffies Stephen M.19, Jayne Steven R.20, Lazar Alban21, Lengaigne MatthieuORCID22, Lin Xiaopei23, 24, Marsland Simon25, Minobe ShoshiroORCID26, Monteiro Pedro M. S.27, Robinson Walter28, Roxy Mathew Koll29, Rykaczewski Ryan R.30, Speich SabrinaORCID31, Smith Inga J.32, Solomon Amy33, Storto AndreaORCID34, Takahashi KenORCID35, Toniazzo Thomas36, Vialard JeromeORCID37
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Hamburg, Ctr Erdsyst Forsch & Nachhaltigkeit, Hamburg, Germany.
2 : Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Earth & Atmospher Sci, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
3 : Indian Inst Technol Delhi, Ctr Atmospher Sci, New Delhi, India.
4 : Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
5 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
6 : CSIRO Oceans & Atmospheres, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
7 : Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Sci Climat & Environm, Unite Mixte CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
8 : CSIRO, Ctr Southern Hemisphere Oceans Res, Aspendale, Vic, Australia.
9 : State Ocean Adm, State Key Lab Satellite Ocean Environm Dynam, Inst Oceanog 2, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
10 : Univ Exeter, Coll Engn Math & Phys Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
11 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Climate & Global Dynam Lab, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.
12 : Ctr Estudios Avanzados Zonas Aridas, Coquimbo, Chile.
13 : Univ Catolica Norte, Fac Ciencias Mar, Dept Biol, Coquimbo, Chile.
14 : Millennium Nucleus Ecol & Sustainable Management, Coquimbo, Chile.
15 : Univ Toulouse, LEGOS, IRD, CNES,CNRS,UPS, Toulouse, France.
16 : Abdus Salam Int Ctr Theoret Phys, Earth Syst Phys Sect, Trieste, Italy.
17 : Brown Univ, Dept Earth Environm & Planetary Sci, Providence, RI 02912 USA.
18 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canadian Ctr Climate Modelling & Anal, Victroia, BC, Canada.
19 : NOAA, Geophys Fluid Dynam Lab, Princeton, NJ USA.
20 : Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Dept Phys Oceanog, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA.
21 : Sorbonne Univ, Lab Oceanog & Climat Expt & Approches Numer, CNRS, IRD,MNHN, Paris, France.
22 : Inst Res Dev, Lab Oceanog & Climate Expt & Numer Approaches, Paris, France.
23 : Ocean Univ China, Inst Adv Ocean Studies, Phys Oceanog Lab, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.
24 : Qingdao Natl Lab Marine Sci & Technol, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.
25 : CSIRO, Climate Sci Ctr, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
26 : Hokkaido Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
27 : CSIR, Southern Ocean Carbon Climate Observ, Cape Town, South Africa.
28 : North Carolina State Univ, Dept Marine Earth & Atmospher Sci, Raleigh, NC USA.
29 : Indian Inst Trop Meteorol, Ctr Climate Change Res, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
30 : Univ South Carolina, Sch Earth Ocean & Environm, Columbia, SC 29208 USA.
31 : ENS PSL, IPSL, UMR8539, Lab Meteorol Dynam, Paris, France.
32 : Univ Otago, Dept Phys, Dunedin, New Zealand.
33 : Univ Colorado, NOAA, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
34 : Ctr Maritime Res & Expt, La Spezia, Italy.
35 : Inst Geofis Peru, Serv Nacl Meteorol & Hidrol Peru, Lima, Peru.
36 : Univ Bergen, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
37 : Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN Lab, IRD, IPSL,CNRS,MNHN, Paris, France.
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media Sa), 2019-07 , Vol. 6 , P. 444 (18p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00444
WOS© Times Cited 5
Keyword(s) ocean observing system, ocean climate, earth observations, in situ measurements, satellite observations, ocean modeling, climate information
Abstract

Natural variability and change of the Earth's climate have significant global societal impacts. With its large heat and carbon capacity and relatively slow dynamics, the ocean plays an integral role in climate, and provides an important source of predictability at seasonal and longer timescales. In addition, the ocean provides the slowly evolving lower boundary to the atmosphere, driving, and modifying atmospheric weather. Understanding and monitoring ocean climate variability and change, to constrain and initialize models as well as identify model biases for improved climate hindcasting and prediction, requires a scale-sensitive, and long-term observing system. A climate observing system has requirements that significantly differ from, and sometimes are orthogonal to, those of other applications. In general terms, they can be summarized by the simultaneous need for both large spatial and long temporal coverage, and by the accuracy and stability required for detecting the local climate signals. This paper reviews the requirements of a climate observing system in terms of space and time scales, and revisits the question of which parameters such a system should encompass to meet future strategic goals of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), with emphasis on ocean and sea-ice covered areas. It considers global as well as regional aspects that should be accounted for in designing observing systems in individual basins. Furthermore, the paper discusses which data-driven products are required to meet WCRP research and modeling needs, and ways to obtain them through data synthesis and assimilation approaches. Finally, it addresses the need for scientific capacity building and international collaboration in support of the collection of high-quality measurements over the large spatial scales and long time-scales required for climate research, bridging the scientific rational to the required resources for implementation.

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Stammer Detlef, Bracco Annalisa, Achutarao Krishna, Beal Lisa, Bindoff Nathaniel L., Braconnot Pascale, Cai Wenju, Chen Dake, Collins Matthew, Danabasoglu Gokhan, Dewitte Boris, Farneti Riccardo, Fox-Kemper Baylor, Fyfe John, Griffies Stephen M., Jayne Steven R., Lazar Alban, Lengaigne Matthieu, Lin Xiaopei, Marsland Simon, Minobe Shoshiro, Monteiro Pedro M. S., Robinson Walter, Roxy Mathew Koll, Rykaczewski Ryan R., Speich Sabrina, Smith Inga J., Solomon Amy, Storto Andrea, Takahashi Ken, Toniazzo Thomas, Vialard Jerome (2019). Ocean Climate Observing Requirements in Support of Climate Research and Climate Information. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6, 444 (18p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00444 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78724/