A Surface Ocean CO2 Reference Network, SOCONET and Associated Marine Boundary Layer CO2 Measurements

Type Article
Date 2019-07
Language English
Author(s) Wanninkhof Rik1, Pickers Penelope A.2, Omar Abdirahman M.3, Sutton Adrienne4, Murata Akihiko5, Olsen AreORCID6, Stephens Britton B.7, Tilbrook BronteORCID8, Munro David9, Pierrot Denis10, Rehder Gregor11, Magdalena Santana-Casiano J.12, Mueller Jens D.11, Trinanes Joaquin13, Tedesco Kathy14, O'Brien KevinORCID15, Currie Kim16, Barberols Leticia10, Telszewski Maciej17, Hoppema Mario18, Ishii Masao19, Gonzalez-Davila Melchor12, Bates Nicholas R.20, Metzl Nicolas21, Suntharalingam Parvadha2, Feely Richard A.4, Nakaoka Shin-Ichiro22, Lauvset Siv K.3, Takahashi Taro23, Steinhoff Tobias24, Schuster Ute25
Affiliation(s) 1 : NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
2 : Univ East Anglia, Ctr Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
3 : Norwegian Res Ctr NORCE, Bergen, Norway.
4 : NOAA, Pacific Marine Environm Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way Ne, Seattle, WA 98115 USA.
5 : Japan Agcy Marine Earth Sci & Technol, Res & Dev Ctr Global Change, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.
6 : Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway.
7 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.
8 : Commonwealth Sci & Ind Res Org, Oceans & Atmosphere, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
9 : Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
10 : Univ Miami, Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Studies, Miami, FL USA.
11 : Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Wamemunde, Rostock, Germany.
12 : Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Inst Oceanog & Cambio Global, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
13 : Univ Santiago de Compostela, Technol Res Inst, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
14 : NOAA, Ocean Observing & Monitoring Div, Silver Spring, MD USA.
15 : Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, NOAA, PMEL,SDIG, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
16 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Dunedin, New Zealand.
17 : Polish Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Int Ocean Carbon Coordinat Project, Sopot, Poland.
18 : Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
19 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, Meteorol Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
20 : Bermuda Inst Ocean Sci, St Georges, Bermuda.
21 : Univ Paris 06, UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,IRD,MNHN,LOCEAN IPSL Lab, Paris, France.
22 : Natl Inst Environm Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
23 : Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
24 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
25 : Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media Sa), 2019-07 , Vol. 6 , P. 400 (21p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00400
WOS© Times Cited 19
Keyword(s) carbon dioxide, network, oceanography, fluxes, best practices

The Surface Ocean CO2 NETwork (SOCONET) and atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) CO2 measurements from ships and buoys focus on the operational aspects of measurements of CO2 in both the ocean surface and atmospheric MBLs. The goal is to provide accurate pCO(2) data to within 2 micro atmosphere (mu atm) for surface ocean and 0.2 parts per million (ppm) for MBL measurements following rigorous best practices, calibration and intercomparison procedures. Platforms and data will be tracked in near real-time and final quality-controlled data will be provided to the community within a year. The network, involving partners worldwide, will aid in production of important products such as maps of monthly resolved surface ocean CO2 and air-sea CO2 flux measurements. These products and other derivatives using surface ocean and MBL CO2 data, such as surface ocean pH maps and MBL CO2 maps, will be of high value for policy assessments and socio-economic decisions regarding the role of the ocean in sequestering anthropogenic CO2 and how this uptake is impacting ocean health by ocean acidification. SOCONET has an open ocean emphasis but will work with regional (coastal) networks. It will liaise with intergovernmental science organizations such as Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), and the joint committee for and ocean and marine meteorology (JCOMM). Here we describe the details of this emerging network and its proposed operations and practices.

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Wanninkhof Rik, Pickers Penelope A., Omar Abdirahman M., Sutton Adrienne, Murata Akihiko, Olsen Are, Stephens Britton B., Tilbrook Bronte, Munro David, Pierrot Denis, Rehder Gregor, Magdalena Santana-Casiano J., Mueller Jens D., Trinanes Joaquin, Tedesco Kathy, O'Brien Kevin, Currie Kim, Barberols Leticia, Telszewski Maciej, Hoppema Mario, Ishii Masao, Gonzalez-Davila Melchor, Bates Nicholas R., Metzl Nicolas, Suntharalingam Parvadha, Feely Richard A., Nakaoka Shin-Ichiro, Lauvset Siv K., Takahashi Taro, Steinhoff Tobias, Schuster Ute (2019). A Surface Ocean CO2 Reference Network, SOCONET and Associated Marine Boundary Layer CO2 Measurements. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6, 400 (21p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00400 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78725/