Population genetics of African Schistosoma species

Type Article
Date 2021-04
Language English
Author(s) Rey O.1, Webster B.L.2, 3, Huyse T.4, 5, Rollinson D.2, 3, Van Den Broeck F.6, 7, Kincaid-Smith J.8, Onyekwere A.1, Boissier J.1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, UPVD, IHPE, F-66000 Perpignan, France
2 : Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratories, Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
3 : London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Imperial College London School of Public Health, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
4 : Department of Biology, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium
5 : Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Ch. Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
6 : Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
7 : Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
8 : Centre for Emerging, Endemic and Exotic Diseases (CEEED), Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences (PPS), Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Campus, Herts AL9 7TA, United Kingdom
Source Infection Genetics And Evolution (1567-1348) (Elsevier BV), 2021-04 , Vol. 89 , P. 104727 (14p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104727
WOS© Times Cited 15
Keyword(s) Schistosoma, Population structure, Genetic diversity, Phylogeography, Hybrids

Blood flukes within the genus Schistosoma (schistosomes) are responsible for the major disease, schistosomiasis, in tropical and sub-tropical areas. This disease is predominantly present on the African continent with more than 85% of the human cases. Schistosomes are also parasites of veterinary importance infecting livestock and wildlife. Schistosoma population genetic structure and diversity are important characteristics that may reflect variations in selection pressures such as those induced by host (mammalian and snail) environments, habitat change, migration and also treatment/control interventions, all of which also shape speciation and evolution of the whole Schistosoma genus. Investigations intoschistosome population genetic structure, diversity and evolution has been an area of important debate and research. Supported by advancesin molecular techniques with capabilitiesfor multi-locus genetic analyses for single larvae schistosome geneticinvestigations have greatly progressed in the last decade. This paper aims to review the genetic studies of both animal and human infecting schistosome. Population genetic structures are reviewed at different spatial scales: local, regional or continental (i.e. phylogeography). Within species genetic diversities are discussed compared and the compounding factors discussed, including the effect of mass drug administration. Finally, the ability for intra-species hybridisation questions species integrities and poses many questions in relation to the natural epidemiology of co-endemic species. Here we review molecularly confirmed hybridisation events (in relation to human disease) and discuss the possible impact for ongoing and future control and elimination.

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