Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.

Keyword(s)

Autophagosome, cance, rflux, LC3, lysosome, macroautophagy, neurodegeneration, phagophore, stress, vacuole

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Klionsky Daniel J., Abdel-Aziz Amal Kamal, Abdelfatah Sara, Abdellatif Mahmoud, Abdoli Asghar, Abel Steffen, Abeliovich Hagai, Abildgaard Marie H., Abudu Yakubu Princely, Acevedo-Arozena Abraham, Adamopoulos Iannis E., Adeli Khosrow, Adolph Timon E., Adornetto Annagrazia, Aflaki Elma, Agam Galila, Agarwal Anupam, Aggarwal Bharat B., Agnello Maria, Agostinis Patrizia, Agrewala Javed N., Agrotis Alexander, Aguilar Patricia V., Ahmad S. Tariq, Ahmed Zubair M., Ahumada-Castro Ulises, Aits Sonja, Aizawa Shu, Akkoc Yunus, Akoumianaki Tonia, Akpinar Hafize Aysin, Al-Abd Ahmed M., Al-Akra Lina, Al-Gharaibeh Abeer, Alaoui-Jamali Moulay A., Alberti Simon, Alcocer-Gómez Elísabet, Alessandri Cristiano, Ali Muhammad, Alim Al-Bari M. Abdul, Aliwaini Saeb, Alizadeh Javad, Almacellas Eugènia, Almasan Alexandru, Alonso Alicia, Alonso Guillermo D., Altan-Bonnet Nihal, Altieri Dario C., Álvarez Élida M. 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Razaul, Karmakar Parimal, Katare Rajesh G., Kato Masaru, Kaufmann Stefan H.E., Kauppinen Anu, Kaushal Gur P., Kaushik Susmita, Kawasaki Kiyoshi, Kazan Kemal, Ke Po-Yuan, Keating Damien J., Keber Ursula, Kehrl John H., Keller Kate E., Keller Christian W., Kemper Jongsook Kim, Kenific Candia M., Kepp Oliver, Kermorgant Stephanie, Kern Andreas, Ketteler Robin, Keulers Tom G., Khalfin Boris, Khalil Hany, Khambu Bilon, Khan Shahid Y., Khandelwal Vinoth Kumar Megraj, Khandia Rekha, Kho Widuri, Khobrekar Noopur V., Khuansuwan Sataree, Khundadze Mukhran, Killackey Samuel A., Kim Dasol, Kim Deok Ryong, Kim Do-Hyung, Kim Dong-Eun, Kim Eun Young, Kim Eun-Kyoung, Kim Hak-Rim, Kim Hee-Sik, Hyung-Ryong kim , Kim Jeong Hun, Kim Jin Kyung, Kim Jin-Hoi, Kim Joungmok, Kim Ju Hwan, Kim Keun Il, Kim Peter K., Kim Seong-Jun, Kimball Scot R., Kimchi Adi, Kimmelman Alec C., Kimura Tomonori, King Matthew A., Kinghorn Kerri J., Kinsey Conan G., Kirkin Vladimir, Kirshenbaum Lorrie A., Kiselev Sergey L., Kishi Shuji, Kitamoto Katsuhiko, Kitaoka Yasushi, Kitazato Kaio, Kitsis Richard N., Kittler Josef T., Kjaerulff Ole, Klein Peter S., Klopstock Thomas, Klucken Jochen, Knævelsrud Helene, Knorr Roland L., Ko Ben C.B., Ko Fred, Ko Jiunn-Liang, Kobayashi Hotaka, Kobayashi Satoru, Koch Ina, Koch Jan C., Koenig Ulrich, Kögel Donat, Koh Young Ho, Koike Masato, Kohlwein Sepp D., Kocaturk Nur M., Komatsu Masaaki, König Jeannette, Kono Toru, Kopp Benjamin T., Korcsmaros Tamas, Korkmaz Gözde, Korolchuk Viktor I., Korsnes Mónica Suárez, Koskela Ali, Kota Janaiah, Kotake Yaichiro, Kotler Monica L., Kou Yanjun, Koukourakis Michael I., Koustas Evangelos, Kovacs Attila L., Kovács Tibor, Koya Daisuke, Kozako Tomohiro, Kraft Claudine, Krainc Dimitri, Krämer Helmut, Krasnodembskaya Anna D., Kretz-Remy Carole, Kroemer Guido, Ktistakis Nicholas T., Kuchitsu Kazuyuki, Kuenen Sabine, Kuerschner Lars, Kukar Thomas, Kumar Ajay, Kumar Ashok, Kumar Deepak, Kumar Dhiraj, Kumar Sharad, Kume Shinji, Kumsta Caroline, Kundu Chanakya N., Kundu Mondira, Kunnumakkara Ajaikumar B., Kurgan Lukasz, Kutateladze Tatiana G., Kutlu Ozlem, Kwak SeongAe, Kwon Ho Jeong, Kwon Taeg Kyu, Kwon Yong Tae, Kyrmizi Irene, La Spada Albert, Labonté Patrick, Ladoire Sylvain, Laface Ilaria, Lafont Frank, Lagace Diane C., Lahiri Vikramjit, Lai Zhibing, Laird Angela S., Lakkaraju Aparna, Lamark Trond, Lan Sheng-Hui, Landajuela Ane, Lane Darius J. R., Lane Jon D., Lang Charles H., Lange Carsten, Langel Ülo, Langer Rupert, Lapaquette Pierre, Laporte Jocelyn, Larusso Nicholas F., Lastres-Becker Isabel, Lau Wilson Chun Yu, Laurie Gordon W., Lavandero Sergio, Law Betty Yuen Kwan, Law Helen Ka-wai, Layfield Rob, Le Weidong, Le Stunff Herve, Leary Alexandre Y., Lebrun Jean-Jacques, Leck Lionel Y.W., Leduc-Gaudet Jean-Philippe, Lee Changwook, Lee Chung-Pei, Lee Da-Hye, Lee Edward B., Lee Erinna F., Lee Gyun Min, Lee He-Jin, Lee Heung Kyu, Lee Jae Man, Lee Jason S., Lee Jin-A, Lee Joo-Yong, Lee Jun Hee, Lee Michael, Lee Min Goo, Lee Min Jae, Lee Myung-Shik, Lee Sang Yoon, Lee Seung-Jae, Lee Stella Y., Lee Sung Bae, Lee Won Hee, Lee Ying-Ray, Lee Yong-ho, Lee Youngil, Lefebvre Christophe, Legouis Renaud, Lei Yu L., Lei Yuchen, Leikin Sergey, Leitinger Gerd, Lemus Leticia, Leng Shuilong, Lenoir Olivia, Lenz Guido, Lenz Heinz Josef, Lenzi Paola, León Yolanda, Leopoldino Andréia M., Leschczyk Christoph, Leskelä Stina, Letellier Elisabeth, Leung Chi-Ting, Leung Po Sing, Leventhal Jeremy S., Levine Beth, Lewis Patrick A., Ley Klaus, Li Bin, Li Da-Qiang, Li Jianming, Li Jing, Li Jiong, Li Ke, Li Liwu, Li Mei, Li Min, Li Min, Li Ming, Li Mingchuan, Li Pin-Lan, Li Ming-Qing, Li Qing, Li Sheng, Li Tiangang, Li Wei, Li Wenming, Li Xue, Li Yi-Ping, Li Yuan, Li Zhiqiang, Li Zhiyong, Li Zhiyuan, Lian Jiqin, Liang Chengyu, Liang Qiangrong, Liang Weicheng, Liang Yongheng, Liang YongTian, Liao Guanghong, Liao Lujian, Liao Mingzhi, Liao Yung-Feng, Librizzi Mariangela, Lie Pearl P. Y., Lilly Mary A., Lim Hyunjung J., Lima Thania R.R., Limana Federica, Lin Chao, Lin Chih-Wen, Lin Dar-Shong, Lin Fu-Cheng, Lin Jiandie D., Lin Kurt M., Lin Kwang-Huei, Lin Liang-Tzung, Lin Pei-Hui, Lin Qiong, Lin Shaofeng, Lin Su-Ju, Lin Wenyu, Lin Xueying, Lin Yao-Xin, Lin Yee-Shin, Linden Rafael, Lindner Paula, Ling Shuo-Chien, Lingor Paul, Linnemann Amelia K., Liou Yih-Cherng, Lipinski Marta M., Lipovšek Saška, Lira Vitor A., Lisiak Natalia, Liton Paloma B., Liu Chao, Liu Ching-Hsuan, Liu Chun-Feng, Liu Cui Hua, Liu Fang, Liu Hao, Liu Hsiao-Sheng, Liu Hua-feng, Liu Huifang, Liu Jia, Liu Jing, Liu Julia, Liu Leyuan, Liu Longhua, Liu Meilian, Liu Qin, Liu Wei, Liu Wende, Liu Xiao-Hong, Liu Xiaodong, Liu Xingguo, Liu Xu, Liu Xuedong, Liu Yanfen, Liu Yang, Liu Yang, Liu Yueyang, Liu Yule, Livingston J. Andrew, Lizard Gerard, Lizcano Jose M., Ljubojevic-Holzer Senka, Lleonart Matilde E., Llobet-Navàs David, Llorente Alicia, Lo Chih Hung, Lobato-Márquez Damián, Long Qi, Long Yun Chau, Loos Ben, Loos Julia A., López Manuela G., López-Doménech Guillermo, López-Guerrero José Antonio, López-Jiménez Ana T., López-Pérez Óscar, López-Valero Israel, Lorenowicz Magdalena J., Lorente Mar, Lorincz Peter, Lossi Laura, Lotersztajn Sophie, Lovat Penny E., Lovell Jonathan F., Lovy Alenka, Lőw Péter, Lu Guang, Lu Haocheng, Lu Jia-Hong, Lu Jin-Jian, Lu Mengji, Lu Shuyan, Luciani Alessandro, Lucocq John M., Ludovico Paula, Luftig Micah A., Luhr Morten, Luis-Ravelo Diego, Lum Julian J., Luna-Dulcey Liany, Lund Anders H., Lund Viktor K., Lünemann Jan D., Lüningschrör Patrick, Luo Honglin, Luo Rongcan, Luo Shouqing, Luo Zhi, Luparello Claudio, Lüscher Bernhard, Luu Luan, Lyakhovich Alex, Lyamzaev Konstantin G., Lystad Alf Håkon, Lytvynchuk Lyubomyr, Ma Alvin C., Ma Changle, Ma Mengxiao, Ma Ning-Fang, Ma Quan-Hong, Ma Xinliang, Ma Yueyun, Ma Zhenyi, Macdougald Ormond A., Macian Fernando, Macintosh Gustavo C., Mackeigan Jeffrey P., Macleod Kay F., Maday Sandra, Madeo Frank, Madesh Muniswamy, Madl Tobias, Madrigal-Matute Julio, Maeda Akiko, Maejima Yasuhiro, Magarinos Marta, Mahavadi Poornima, Maiani Emiliano, Maiese Kenneth, Maiti Panchanan, Maiuri Maria Chiara, Majello Barbara, Major Michael B., Makareeva Elena, Malik Fayaz, Mallilankaraman Karthik, Malorni Walter, Maloyan Alina, Mammadova Najiba, Man Gene Chi Wai, Manai Federico, Mancias Joseph D., Mandelkow Eva-Maria, Mandell Michael A., Manfredi Angelo A., Manjili Masoud H., Manjithaya Ravi, Manque Patricio, Manshian Bella B., Manzano Raquel, Manzoni Claudia, Mao Kai, Marchese Cinzia, Marchetti Sandrine, Marconi Anna Maria, Marcucci Fabrizio, Mardente Stefania, Mareninova Olga A., Margeta Marta, Mari Muriel, Marinelli Sara, Marinelli Oliviero, Mariño Guillermo, Mariotto Sofia, Marshall Richard S., Marten Mark R., Martens Sascha, Martin Alexandre P.J., Martin Katie R., Martin Sara, Martin Shaun, Martín-Segura Adrián, Martín-Acebes Miguel A., Martin-Burriel Inmaculada, Martin-Rincon Marcos, Martin-Sanz Paloma, Martina José A., Martinet Wim, Martinez Aitor, Martinez Ana, Martinez Jennifer, Martinez Velazquez Moises, Martinez-Lopez Nuria, Martinez-Vicente Marta, Martins Daniel O., Martins Joilson O., Martins Waleska K., Martins-Marques Tania, Marzetti Emanuele, Masaldan Shashank, Masclaux-Daubresse Celine, Mashek Douglas G., Massa Valentina, Massieu Lourdes, Masson Glenn R., Masuelli Laura, Masyuk Anatoliy I., Masyuk Tetyana V., Matarrese Paola, Matheu Ander, Matoba Satoaki, Matsuzaki Sachiko, Mattar Pamela, Matte Alessandro, Mattoscio Domenico, Mauriz José L., Mauthe Mario, Mauvezin Caroline, Maverakis Emanual, Maycotte Paola, Mayer Johanna, Mazzoccoli Gianluigi, Mazzoni Cristina, Mazzulli Joseph R., McCarty Nami, McDonald Christine, McGill Mitchell R., McKenna Sharon L., McLaughlin BethAnn, McLoughlin Fionn, McNiven Mark A., McWilliams Thomas G., Mechta-Grigoriou Fatima, Medeiros Tania Catarina, Medina Diego L., Megeney Lynn A., Megyeri Klara, Mehrpour Maryam, Mehta Jawahar L., Meijer Alfred J., Meijer Annemarie H., Mejlvang Jakob, Meléndez Alicia, Melk Annette, Memisoglu Gonen, Mendes Alexandrina F., Meng Delong, Meng Fei, Meng Tian, Menna-Barreto Rubem, Menon Manoj B., Mercer Carol, Mercier Anne E., Mergny Jean-Louis, Merighi Adalberto, Merkley Seth D., Merla Giuseppe, Meske Volker, Mestre Ana Cecilia, Metur Shree Padma, Meyer Christian, Meyer Hemmo, Mi Wenyi, Mialet-Perez Jeanne, Miao Junying, Micale Lucia, Miki Yasuo, Milan Enrico, Milczarek Małgorzata, Miller Dana L., Miller Samuel I., Miller Silke, Millward Steven W., Milosevic Ira, Minina Elena A., Mirzaei Hamed, Mirzaei Hamid Reza, Mirzaei Mehdi, Mishra Amit, Mishra Nandita, Mishra Paras Kumar, Misirkic Marjanovic Maja, Misasi Roberta, Misra Amit, Misso Gabriella, Mitchell Claire, Mitou Geraldine, Miura Tetsuji, Miyamoto Shigeki, Miyazaki Makoto, Miyazaki Mitsunori, Miyazaki Taiga, Miyazawa Keisuke, Mizushima Noboru, Mogensen Trine H., Mograbi Baharia, Mohammadinejad Reza, Mohamud Yasir, Mohanty Abhishek, Mohapatra Sipra, Möhlmann Torsten, Mohmmed Asif, Moles Anna, Moley Kelle H., Molinari Maurizio, Mollace Vincenzo, Møller Andreas Buch, Mollereau Bertrand, Mollinedo Faustino, Montagna Costanza, Monteiro Mervyn J., Montella Andrea, Montes L. Ruth, Montico Barbara, Mony Vinod K., Monzio Compagnoni Giacomo, Moore Michael N., Moosavi Mohammad A., Mora Ana L., Mora Marina, Morales-Alamo David, Moratalla Rosario, Moreira Paula I., Morelli Elena, Moreno Sandra, Moreno-Blas Daniel, Moresi Viviana, Morga Benjamin, Morgan Alwena H., Morin Fabrice, Morishita Hideaki, Moritz Orson L., Moriyama Mariko, Moriyasu Yuji, Morleo Manuela, Morselli Eugenia, Moruno-Manchon Jose F., Moscat Jorge, Mostowy Serge, Motori Elisa, Moura Andrea Felinto, Moustaid-Moussa Naima, Mrakovcic Maria, Muciño-Hernández Gabriel, Mukherjee Anupam, Mukhopadhyay Subhadip, Mulcahy Levy Jean M., Mulero Victoriano, Muller Sylviane, Münch Christian, Munjal Ashok, Munoz-Canoves Pura, Muñoz-Galdeano Teresa, Münz Christian, Murakawa Tomokazu, Muratori Claudia, Murphy Brona M., Murphy J. Patrick, Murthy Aditya, Myöhänen Timo T., Mysorekar Indira U., Mytych Jennifer, Nabavi Seyed Mohammad, Nabissi Massimo, Nagy Péter, Nah Jihoon, Nahimana Aimable, Nakagawa Ichiro, Nakamura Ken, Nakatogawa Hitoshi, Nandi Shyam S., Nanjundan Meera, Nanni Monica, Napolitano Gennaro, Nardacci Roberta, Narita Masashi, Nassif Melissa, Nathan Ilana, Natsumeda Manabu, Naude Ryno J., Naumann Christin, Naveiras Olaia, Navid Fatemeh, Nawrocki Steffan T., Nazarko Taras Y., Nazio Francesca, Negoita Florentina, Neill Thomas, Neisch Amanda L., Neri Luca M., Netea Mihai G., Neubert Patrick, Neufeld Thomas P., Neumann Dietbert, Neutzner Albert, Newton Phillip T., Ney Paul A., Nezis Ioannis P., Ng Charlene C.W., Ng Tzi Bun, Nguyen Hang T. T., Nguyen Long T., Ni Hong-Min, Ní Cheallaigh Clíona, Ni Zhenhong, Nicolao M. Celeste, Nicoli Francesco, Nieto-Diaz Manuel, Nilsson Per, Ning Shunbin, Niranjan Rituraj, Nishimune Hiroshi, Niso-Santano Mireia, Nixon Ralph A., Nobili Annalisa, Nobrega Clevio, Noda Takeshi, Nogueira-Recalde Uxía, Nolan Trevor M., Nombela Ivan, Novak Ivana, Novoa Beatriz, Nozawa Takashi, Nukina Nobuyuki, Nussbaum-Krammer Carmen, Nylandsted Jesper, O’donovan Tracey R., O’leary Seónadh M., O’rourke Eyleen J., O’sullivan Mary P., O’sullivan Timothy E., Oddo Salvatore, Oehme Ina, Ogawa Michinaga, Ogier-Denis Eric, Ogmundsdottir Margret H., Ogretmen Besim, Oh Goo Taeg, Oh Seon-Hee, Oh Young J., Ohama Takashi, Ohashi Yohei, Ohmuraya Masaki, Oikonomou Vasileios, Ojha Rani, Okamoto Koji, Okazawa Hitoshi, Oku Masahide, Oliván Sara, Oliveira Jorge M. A., Ollmann Michael, Olzmann James A., Omari Shakib, Omary M. Bishr, Önal Gizem, Ondrej Martin, Ong Sang-Bing, Ong Sang-Ging, Onnis Anna, Orellana Juan A., Orellana-Muñoz Sara, Ortega-Villaizan Maria Del Mar, Ortiz-Gonzalez Xilma R., Ortona Elena, Osiewacz Heinz D., Osman Abdel-Hamid K., Osta Rosario, Otegui Marisa S., Otsu Kinya, Ott Christiane, Ottobrini Luisa, Ou Jing-hsiung James, Outeiro Tiago F., Oynebraten Inger, Ozturk Melek, Pagès Gilles, Pahari Susanta, Pajares Marta, Pajvani Utpal B., Pal Rituraj, Paladino Simona, Pallet Nicolas, Palmieri Michela, Palmisano Giuseppe, Palumbo Camilla, Pampaloni Francesco, Pan Lifeng, Pan Qingjun, Pan Wenliang, Pan Xin, Panasyuk Ganna, Pandey Rahul, Pandey Udai B., Pandya Vrajesh, Paneni Francesco, Pang Shirley Y., Panzarini Elisa, Papademetrio