Altimetry for the future: Building on 25 years of progress

Type Article
Date 2021-07
Language English
Author(s) Abdalla Saleh1, Kolahchi Abdolnabi Abdeh2, Ablain Michael64, Adusumilli Susheel3, Bhowmick Suchandra Aich4, Alou-Font Eva5, Amarouche Laiba6, Andersen Ole Baltazar7, Antich Helena8, Aouf Lotfi9, Arbic Brian10, Armitage Thomas11, Arnault Sabine12, Artana Camila13, Aulicino Giuseppe14, Ayoub Nadia15, Badulin Sergei16, Baker Steven17, Banks Chris18, Bao Lifeng19, Barbetta Silvia, Barcelo-Llull Barbara8, Barlier Francois21, Basu Sujit22, Bauer-Gottwein Peter23, Becker Matthias24, Beckley Brian25, Bellefond Nicole26, Belonenko Tatyana27, Benkiran Mounir13, Benkouider Touati28, Bennartz Ralf29, Benveniste Jerome33, Bercher Nicolas31, Berge-Nguyen Muriel15, 26, Bettencourt Joao32, Blarel Fabien15, Blazquez Alejandro15, 26, Blumstein Denis15, 26, Bonnefond Pascal30, Borde Franck34, Bouffard Jerome30, Boy Francois26, Boy Jean-PaulORCID35, Brachet Cedric36, Brasseur Pierre37, Braun Alexander38, Brocca Luca20, Brockley David17, Brodeau Laurent39, Brown Shannon40, Bruinsma Sean26, 41, Bulczak AnnaORCID42, Buzzard Sammie43, Cahill Madeleine44, Calmant Stephane15, Calzas Michel36, Camici Stefania20, Cancet Mathilde45, Capdeville Hugues6, Carabajal Claudia Cristina46, Carrere Loren6, Cazenave Anny15, 47, Chassignet Eric P.48, Chauhan Prakash49, Cherchali Selma26, Chereskin Teresa3, Cheymol Cecile26, Ciani Daniele174, Cipollini Paolo50, Cirillo Francesca51, Cosme Emmanuel37, Coss Steve52, Cotroneo Yuri14, Cotton David53, Couhert Alexandre26, Coutin-Faye Sophie26, Cretaux Jean-Francois15, 26, Cyr Frederic54, D'Ovidio Francesco12, Darrozes Jose41, David Cedric40, Dayoub Nadim55, de Staerke Danielle26, Deng Xiaoli56, Desai Shailen40, Desjonqueres Jean-Damien40, Dettmering DeniseORCID57, Di Bella Alessandro7, Diaz-Barroso Lara5, Dibarboure Gerald26, Dieng Habib Boubacar15, 39, Dinardo Salvatore6, Dobslaw Henryk58, Dodet Guillaume59, Doglioli Andrea60, Domeneghetti Alessio61, Donahue David62, Dong Shenfu63, Donlon Craig34, Dorandeu Joel64, Drezen Christine36, Drinkwater Mark34, Du Penhoat Yves15, Dushaw Brian65, Egido Alejandro66, Erofeeva Svetlana67, Escudier Philippe68, Esselborn Saskia58, Exertier Pierre41, Fablet Ronan69, Falco Cedric70, Farrell Sinead Louise71, Faugere Yannice6, Femenias Pierre30, Fenoglio Luciana72, Fernandes Joana73, Gabriel Fernandez Juan5, Ferrage Pascale26, Ferrari Ramiro74, Fichen Lionel36, Filippucci Paolo20, Flampouris Stylianos75, Fleury Sara15, Fornari Marco76, Forsberg Rene7, Frappart Frederic15, Frery Marie-Laure6, Garcia Pablo77, Garcia-Mondejar Albert77, Gaudelli Julia17, Gaultier Lucile78, Getirana Augusto79, Gibert Ferran77, Gil Artur80, 81, Gilbert Lin17, Gille Sarah3, Giulicchi Luisella34, Gomez-Enri Jesus82, Gomez-Navarro Laura37, Gommenginger Christine55, Gourdeau Lionel15, Griffin David83, Groh Andreas84, Guerin Alexandre26, Guerrero Raul85, Guinle Thierry26, Gupta Praveen4, Gutknecht Benjamin D.84, Hamon Mathieu13, Han Guoqi86, Hauser Daniele87, Helm Veit88, Hendricks Stefan88, Hernandez Fabrice89, Hogg Anna90, Horwath Martin84, Idzanovic Martina91, Janssen Peter1, Jeansou Eric45, Jia Yongjun92, Jia Yuanyuan52, Jiang Liguang23, Johannessen Johnny A.93, Kamachi Masafumi94, Karimova Svetlana95, Kelly Kathryn96, Kim Sung Yong97, King Robert98, Kittel Cecile M. M.23, Klein Patrice99, Klos Anna100, Knudsen Per7, Koenig Rolf58, Kostianoy Andrey16, Kouraev Alexei15, Kumar Raj4, Labroue Sylvie6, Selene Lago Loreley101, 102, Lambin Juliette26, Lasson Lea15, 39, Laurain Olivier21, Laxenaire Remi48, Lazaro Clara73, Le Gac Sophie26, Le Sommer Julien37, Le Traon Pierre-Yves13, 176, Lebedev Sergey103, Leger FabienORCID15, Legresy Benoit83, Lemoine Frank104, Lenain Luc3, Leuliette Eric105, Levy Marina12, Lillibridge John106, Liu Jianqiang92, Llovel William59, 175, Lyard Florent15, Macintosh Claire107, Varona Eduard Makhoul77, Manfredi Cecile26, Marin Frederic15, Mason Evan8, Massari Christian, Mavrocordatos Constantin34, Maximenko Nikolai108, McMillan Malcolm109, Medina Thierry26, Melet Angelique13, Meloni Marco110, Mertikas Stelios111, Metref Sammy37, Meyssignac Benoit15, 26, Minster Jean-Francois112, Moreau Thomas6, Moreira Daniel113, Morel Yves15, Morrow Rosemary15, Moyard John26, Mulet Sandrine6, Naeije Marc114, Nerem Robert Steven115, Ngodock Hans116, Nielsen KarinaORCID7, Nilsen Jan Even Oie117, Nino Fernando15, Loddo Carolina Nogueira118, Nous Camille119, Obligis Estelle118, Otosaka Ines, Otten Michiel, Ozbahceci Berguzar Oztunali, Raj Roshin P., Paiva Rodrigo, Paniagua Guillermina, Paolo Fernando, Paris Adrien, Pascual Ananda, Passaro Marcello, Paul Stephan, Pavelsky Tamlin, Pearson Christopher, Penduff Thierry, Peng Fukai, Perosanz Felix, Picot Nicolas, Piras Fanny, Poggiali Valerio, Poirier Etienne, de Leon Sonia Ponce, Prants Sergey, Prigent Catherine, Provost Christine, Pujol M-Isabelle, Qiu Bo, Quilfen Yves, Rami Ali, Raney R. Keith, Rayna Matthias, Remy Elisabeth, Remy Frederique, Restano Marco, Richardson Annie, Richardson Donald, Ricker Robert, Ricko Martina, Rinne Eero, Rose Stine Kildegaard, Rosmorduc Vinca, Rudenko SergeiORCID, Ruiz Simon, Ryan Barbara J., Salaun Corinne, Sanchez-Roman Antonio, Sorensen Louise SandbergORCID, Sandwell David, Saraceno Martin, Scagliola Michele, Schaeffer Philippe, Scharffenberg Martin G., Scharroo Remko, Schiller Andreas, Schneider Raphael, Schwatke Christian, Scozzari Andrea, Ser-Giacomi Enrico, Seyler Frederique, Shah Rashmi, Sharma Rashmi, Shaw Andrew, Shepherd Andrew, Shriver Jay, Shum C. K., Simons Wim, Simonsen Sebatian B., Slater Thomas, Smith Walter, Soares Saulo, Sokolovskiy Mikhail, Soudarin Laurent, Spatar Ciprian, Speich Sabrina, Srinivasan Margaret, Srokosz Meric, Stanev Emil, Staneva Joanna, Steunou Nathalie, Stroeve Julienne, Su Bob, Sulistioadi Yohanes Budi, Swain Debadatta, Sylvestre-Baron Annick, Taburet Nicolas, Tailleux Remi, Takayama Katsumi, Tapley Byron, Tarpanelli Angelica, Tavernier Gilles, Testut Laurent, Thakur Praveen K., Thibaut Pierre, Thompson Luanne, Tintore Joaquin, Tison Celine, Tourain Cedric, Tournadre Jean, Townsend Bill, Tran Ngan, Trilles Sebastien, Tsamados Michel, Tseng Kuo-Hsin, Ubelmann Clement, Uebbing Bernd, Vergara Oscar, Verron Jacques, Vieira Telmo, Vignudelli Stefano, Shiffer Nadya Vinogradova, Visser Pieter, Vivier Frederic, Volkov Denis, von Schuckmann Karina, Vuglinskii Valerii, Vuilleumier Pierrik, Walter Blake, Wang Jida, Wang Chao, Watson Christopher, Wilkin John, Willis Josh, Wilson Hilary, Woodworth Philip, Yang Kehan, Yao Fangfang, Zaharia Raymond, Zakharova Elena, Zaron Edward D., Zhang Yongsheng, Zhao Zhongxiang, Zinchenko Vadim, Zlotnicki Victor
Affiliation(s) 1 : ECMWF, Shinfield Pk, Reading RG2 9AX, Berks, England.
2 : AREEO, SCWMRI, Jalal St Shahrak Esteglal, Tehran 1389817635, Iran.
3 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
4 : ISRO, Space Applicat Ctr, Ahmadabad 380058, Gujarat, India.
5 : SOCIB, Parc Bit, Palma De Mallorca 07121, Spain.
6 : CLS, 11 Rue Hermes,Parc Technol Canal, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
7 : Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Space, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
8 : IMEDEA CSIC UIB, C Miquel Marques 21, Esporles 07190, Baleares, Spain.
9 : Meteo France, 42 Ave G Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse, France.
10 : Univ Michigan, Dept Earth Env Sci, 1100 North Univ Ave,2534 North Univ Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
11 : CALTECH, NASA, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA.
12 : Sorbonne Univ, MNHN, CNRS, LOCEAN IPSL,IRD, F-75005 Paris, France.
13 : Mercator Ocean Int, 8-10 Rue Hermes, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
14 : Univ Napoli Parthenope, Ctr Direz Is C4, I-80143 Naples, Italy.
15 : Univ Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CNES,IRD, 14 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
16 : Shirshov Inst Oceanol, 36 Nakhimovskii Pr, Moscow 117997, Russia.
17 : UCL MSSL, Dept Space & Climate Phys, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
18 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Joseph Proudman Bldg,6 Brownlow St, Liverpool L3 5DA, Merseyside, England.
19 : Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geodesy & Geophys, 340 Xudong Dajie, Wuhan 430077, Hubei, Peoples R China.
20 : IRPI CNR, Via Madonna Alta 126, I-06128 Perugia, Italy.
21 : Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Geoazur, CNRS,IRD, 250 Rue Albert Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France.
22 : Space Applicat Ctr, Arohi Club Rd Ghuma, Ahmadabad 380058, Gujarat, India.
23 : Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Environm Engn, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
24 : Tech Univ Darmstadt, Franziska Braun Str 7, D-64287 Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany.
25 : SGT Inc, NASA GSFC, 11901 Vah Brady Rd, Upper Marlboro, MD 20772 USA.
26 : Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
27 : St Petersburg State Univ, 7-9 Univ Skaya Nab, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
28 : Ctr Space Tech, POB 13, Arzew 31200, Oran, Algeria.
29 : Vanderbilt Univ, Stevenson Ctr, Nashville, TN 37216 USA.
30 : European Space Agcy ESA ESRIN, Largo Galileo Galilei 1, I-00044 Frascati, RM, Italy.
31 : Altihydrolab Fr, 25 Ave 11 Novembre, F-69110 St Foy Les Lyon, France.
32 : Univ Lisbon, CENTEC IST Inst Super Tecn, Pay Cent,Av Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal.
33 : UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,SYRTE,CNRS,IRD, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-06 Paris, France.
34 : Estec, European Space Agcy, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
35 : EOST IPGS, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.
36 : CNRS INSU DT, Batiment IPEV CS 50074, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
37 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, IGE, Grenoble INP, CNRS,IRD, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
38 : Queens Univ, 36 Union St, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.
39 : Ocean Next, 90 Chemin Moulin, F-38660 La Terrasse, France.
40 : CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA.
41 : Univ Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, Geosci Environm Toulouse GET,IRD,UT3 Paul Sabatie, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
42 : PAS, Inst Oceanol, Powstancow Warszawy55, PL-81712 Sopot, Pomorskie, Poland.
43 : UCL, Ctr Polar Observat & Modelling, Dept Earth Sci, Gower St, London WCE1 6BT, England.
44 : Australian Inst Marine Sci, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld 4810, Australia.
45 : NOVELTIS, 153 Rue Lac, F-31670 Labege, France.
46 : Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 61A, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
47 : Int Space Sci Inst ISSI, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
48 : Florida State Univ, Ctr Ocean Atmospher Predict Studies, 2000 Levy Ave,Bldg A,Room 259, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
49 : IIRS ISRO, Indian Inst Remote Sensing, 4 Kalidas Rd, Dehra Dun 248001, Uttarakhand, India.
50 : ESA ECSAT, European Space Agcy, Fermi Ave,Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FD, Oxon, England.
51 : Airbus, Claude Dornier Str, D-88090 Baden Wurttemberg, Germany.
52 : Ohio State Univ, Sch Earth Sci, 275 Mendenhall Lab,125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
53 : SATOC, Coach House Farm, Castle Edge Rd, New Mills SK22 4QF, Derby, England.
54 : Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Ctr, 80 East White Hills Rd, St John, NF A1C 5X1, Canada.
55 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, Hants, England.
56 : Univ Newcastle, Sch Engn, Univ Dr, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
57 : Tech Univ Munchen DGFI TUM, Deutsch Geodat Forschungsinst, Arcisstr 21, D-80333 Munich, Germany.
58 : GFZ Helmholtz Ctr Potsdam, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany.
59 : Univ Brest, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale LOPS, IUEM, IFREMER,IRD,CNRS, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
60 : Aix Marseille Univ, Univ Toulon, MIO, CNRS,IRD, F-13288 Marseille, France.
61 : Univ Bologna, DICAM, Viale Risorgimento 2, I-40136 Bologna, Italy.
62 : NOAA, Off Satellite & Prod Operat, 5830 Univ Res Court, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
63 : NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
64 : Magellium, 1 Rue Ariane, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
65 : Carrer La Barca 10,3-1, Girona 17004, Girona, Spain.
66 : NOAA LSA GST Inc, 5830 Univ Res Court, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
67 : Oregon State Univ, 104 Ocean Admin Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.
68 : CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
69 : IMT Atlantique, Technopole Brest Iroise, F-29238 Brest, France.
70 : Univ Perpignan, 52 Ave Paul Alduy, F-66000 Perpignan, France.
71 : Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
72 : Univ Bonn, Inst Geodesy & Geoinformat, Nussallee 17, D-53115 Bonn, Nrw, Germany.
73 : Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Interdisciplinar Invest Marinha & Ambiental C, Rua Campo Alegre, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal.
74 : Cima Conicet, Dr Pedro I Rivera 5010, RA-1431 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
75 : NOAA NWS STI, STC, 1325 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA.
76 : Estec, Rhea European Space Agcy, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
77 : IsardSAT SL, Marie Curie 8-14,A-219, Barcelona 08042, Spain.
78 : OceanDataLab, 870 Route Deolen, F-29280 Locmaria Plouzane, France.
79 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Applicat Int Corp, Hydrol Sci Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
80 : Univ Azores, FCT, cE3c Azorean Biodivers Grp, Complexo Cient,Campus Univ Ponta Delgada, P-9500321 Ponta Delgada, Azores Autonomo, Portugal.
81 : Univ Azores, FCT, IVAR, Complexo Cient,Campus Univ Ponta Delgada, P-9500321 Ponta Delgada, Azores Autonomo, Portugal.
82 : Univ Cadiz, Casem, Av Republ Saharaui S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain.
83 : CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
84 : Tech Univ Dresden, Inst Planetare Geodasie, Helmholtzstr 10, D-01062 Dresden, Saxony, Germany.
85 : Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, RA-7600 Mar Del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
86 : Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 9860 W Saanich Rd, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada.
87 : Latmos CNRS UVSQ Sorbonne Univ, 11 Blvd Dalembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France.
88 : Alfred Wegener Inst Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine, Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
89 : Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Oceanog, IRD LEGOS UFPE DOCEAN, Av Arquitetura S-N, BR-50740550 Recife, PE, Brazil.
90 : Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
91 : Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Fac Sci & Technol, POB 5003, N-1432 AS, Viken, Norway.
92 : Natl Satellite Ocean Applicat Serv, 8 Da Hui Si Rd, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.
93 : NERSC, Thormoehlensgate 47, N-5006 Bergen, Norway.
94 : Jamstec, Kanazawa Ku, 3173-25 Showa Machi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2360001, Japan.
95 : Tolka Analyt, 21 Komsomolskaya Str,54, Ufa 450001, Republic Bashko, Russia.
96 : Univ Washington, 6533 44th Ave Ne, Seattle, WA 98115 USA.
97 : Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Environm Fluid Mech Lab, Daejeon 32141, South Korea.
98 : UK Met Off, Met Off, Exeter EX1 3PB, Devon, England.
99 : Ecole Normale Super, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France.
100 : Mil Univ Technol, Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, PL-00908 Warsaw, Mazowieckie, Poland.
101 : Univ Buenos Aires Fcen Uba, Intendente Guiraldes 2160,Ciudad Univ,Pabellon 2, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
102 : CIMA, Intendente Guiraldes 2160,Ciudad Univ,Pabellon 2, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
103 : Russian Acad Sci, GC RAS, Geophys Ctr, 3 Str Molodezhnaya, Moscow 119296, Russia.
104 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Geodesy & Geophys Lab, Code 61A, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
105 : NOAA Lab Satellite Altimetry, Coll Pk,5830 Univ Res Court, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
106 : NOAA, 29 Shore Lane, Wells, ME 04090 USA.
107 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Whiteknights Rd, Reading RG6 6ET, Berks, England.
108 : Univ Hawaii, 1680 East West Rd,POST 401, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
109 : Univ Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YW, Lancs, England.
110 : European Space Agcy ESA ESRIN, SERCO, Largo Galileo Galilei 1, I-00044 Frascati, RM, Italy.
111 : Tech Univ Crete, Geodesy & Geomat Engn Lab, GR-73100 Khania, Crete, Greece.
112 : IFREMER, 18 Rue Mt Vallier, F-31130 Quint Fonsegrives, France.
113 : CPRM, Av Pasteur 404, BR-22290290 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
114 : Delft Univ Technol, Fac Aerosp Engn, Kluyverweg 1, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
115 : Univ Colorado, 3775 Discovery Dr,AERO 456, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
116 : US Naval Res Lab, 1009 Balch Blvd, Stennis Space Ctr, MS 39529 USA.
117 : Inst Marine Res, Strandgaten 196, N-5004 Bergen, Norway.
118 : EUMETSAT, Eumetsat Allee 1, D-64295 Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
119 : Cogitamus Lab, Rue Descartes, F-75005 Paris, France.
120 : Univ Leeds, Ctr Polar Observat & Modelling, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
121 : European Space Agcy, Robert Bosch Str 5, D-64293 Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
122 : Izmir Inst Technol, Civil Engn Dept, TR-35430 Izmir, Turkey.
123 : IPH UFRGS, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
124 : Ctr Invest Mar & Atmosfera Cima Conicet Uba, Av Libertador 5740,12-7 Ciudad Autanoma Buenos Ai, RA-1428 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
125 : Univ Munich, Luisenstr 37, D-80333 Munich, Bavaria, Germany.
126 : Univ N Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.
127 : Newcastle Univ, Sch Engn, Cassie Bldg, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England.
128 : Cornell Univ, 410 Space Sci Bldg, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
129 : La Rochelle Univ, LIttoral Environm & Soc LIENSs, CNRS, UMR 7266, 2 Rue Olympe Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle, France.
130 : Russian Acad Sci, Pacific Oceanol Inst, 43 Baltiiskaya St, Primorye 690041, Russia.
131 : Observ Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
132 : Univ Hawaii Manoa, 1052 Kamahele St, Kailua, HI 96734 USA.
133 : Llc, 2Kr, 1588 Keswick Pl, Annapolis, MD 21401 USA.
134 : NOAA Ctr Weather & Climate, 5830 Univ Res Court, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
135 : NASA GSFC, KBR, 7701 Greenbelt Rd,Suite 400, Greenbelt, MD 20770 USA.
136 : Finnish Meteorol Inst, POB 503, Helsinki 00101, Finland.
137 : Grp Earth Observat GEO, 10090 Trop Dr, Bonita Springs, FL 34135 USA.
138 : Shom, 13 Rue Chatellier, F-29200 Brest, France.
139 : Univ Buenos Aires, Av Intendente Guiraldes 2160,Ciudad Univ,Pab 2, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
140 : UMI IFAECI CNRS CONICET UBA IRD, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, CIMA, Av Intendente Guiraldes 2160,Ciudad Univ,Pab 2, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
141 : Aresys Srl, Via Privata Flumendosa 16, I-20132 Milan, Italy.
142 : Univ Hamburg, Ctr Erdsyst Forsch & Nachhaltigkeit CEN, Bundesst 53, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.
143 : Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland GEUS, Dept Hydrol, Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
144 : CNR ISTI, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa, Italy.
145 : Mit Eaps, Via Forli 13, I-06134 Perugia, Italy.
146 : Univ Montpellier, UMR Espace Dev, IRD, 500 Rue Jean Francois Breton, F-34093 Montpellier 5, France.
147 : Skymat Ltd, 11 Cedar Crescent, Southampton, Hants, England.
148 : Russian Acad Sci, Water Problems Inst, 3 Gubkina Str, Moscow 119333, Russia.
149 : ENS PSL, LMD IPSL, 24 Rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris 05, France.
150 : Helmholz Zentrum Geesthacht HZG, Inst Coastal Syst, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.
151 : Univ Twente, Hengelosestr 99,POB 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
152 : Mulawarman Univ, Ctr Geospatial Informat Infrastruct Dev CGIID, Jl Krayan 1, Samarinda 75117, Kalimantan Timu, Indonesia.
153 : Mulawarman Univ, Fac Forestry, Jl Krayan 1, Samarinda 75117, Kalimantan Timu, Indonesia.
154 : Indian Inst Technol Bhubaneswar, IIT Bhubaneswar, Room 10 SEOCS,SBS Bldg, Jatni 752050, Odisha, India.
155 : Kyushu Univ, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 8168580, Japan.
156 : Univ Texas Austin, 5603 Lands End St, Austin, TX 78734 USA.
157 : Univ Washington, Sch Oceanog, Box 355351, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
158 : Townsend Aerosp Consulting LLC, 270 King George St, Annapolis, MD 21401 USA.
159 : Thales Alenia Space, 26 Ave Jean Francois Champollion, F-31037 Toulouse H1, France.
160 : Natl Cent Univ, Ctr Space & Remote Sensing Res, 300 Jhongda Rd, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan.
161 : CNR, Area Ric Cnr, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
162 : Sci Mission Directorate, NASA HQ, 300 E St SW, Washington, DC 02546 USA.
163 : Univ Miami, Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Studies, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
164 : State Hydrol Inst, 2nd Line 23, St Petersburg 199053, Russia.
165 : Kansas State Univ, 1002 Seaton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.
166 : Univ Tasmania, Discipline Geog & Spatial Sci, Private Bag 76, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
167 : Rutgers State Univ, 71 Dudley Rd, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA.
168 : Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Dept Geog, 4001 Discovery Dr, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.
169 : EOLA ME Water Problem Inst RAS, Goubkina 3, Moscow 117971, Russia.
170 : Portland State Univ, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 USA.
171 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat NCEI UMD E, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA.
172 : Univ Washington, Appl Phys Lab, 1013 NE 40th St, Seattle, WA 98105 USA.
173 : St Petersburg State Univ, Univ Embankment 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
174 : CNR ISMAR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
175 : Univ Brest, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale LOPS, IUEM, IFREMER,IRD,CNRS, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
176 : Mercator Ocean Int, 8-10 Rue Hermes, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
Source Advances In Space Research (0273-1177) (Elsevier), 2021-07 , Vol. 68 , N. 2 , P. 319-363
DOI 10.1016/j.asr.2021.01.022
WOS© Times Cited 6
Keyword(s) Satellite altimetry, Oceanography, Sea level, Coastal oceanography, Cryospheric sciences, Hydrology
Abstract

In 2018 we celebrated 25 years of development of radar altimetry, and the progress achieved by this methodology in the fields of global and coastal oceanography, hydrology, geodesy and cryospheric sciences. Many symbolic major events have celebrated these developments, e.g., in Venice, Italy, the 15th (2006) and 20th (2012) years of progress and more recently, in 2018, in Ponta Delgada, Portugal, 25 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry. On this latter occasion it was decided to collect contributions of scientists, engineers and managers involved in the worldwide altimetry community to depict the state of altimetry and propose recommendations for the altimetry of the future. This paper summarizes contributions and recommendations that were collected and provides guidance for future mission design, research activities, and sustainable operational radar altimetry data exploitation. Recommendations provided are fundamental for optimizing further scientific and operational advances of oceanographic observations by altimetry, including requirements for spatial and temporal resolution of altimetric measurements, their accuracy and continuity. There are also new challenges and new openings mentioned in the paper that are particularly crucial for observations at higher latitudes, for coastal oceanography, for cryospheric studies and for hydrology.

The paper starts with a general introduction followed by a section on Earth System Science including Ocean Dynamics, Sea Level, the Coastal Ocean, Hydrology, the Cryosphere and Polar Oceans and the “Green” Ocean, extending the frontier from biogeochemistry to marine ecology. Applications are described in a subsequent section, which covers Operational Oceanography, Weather, Hurricane Wave and Wind Forecasting, Climate projection. Instruments’ development and satellite missions’ evolutions are described in a fourth section. A fifth section covers the key observations that altimeters provide and their potential complements, from other Earth observation measurements to in situ data. Section 6 identifies the data and methods and provides some accuracy and resolution requirements for the wet tropospheric correction, the orbit and other geodetic requirements, the Mean Sea Surface, Geoid and Mean Dynamic Topography, Calibration and Validation, data accuracy, data access and handling (including the DUACS system). Section 7 brings a transversal view on scales, integration, artificial intelligence, and capacity building (education and training). Section 8 reviews the programmatic issues followed by a conclusion.

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Abdalla Saleh, Kolahchi Abdolnabi Abdeh, Ablain Michael, Adusumilli Susheel, Bhowmick Suchandra Aich, Alou-Font Eva, Amarouche Laiba, Andersen Ole Baltazar, Antich Helena, Aouf Lotfi, Arbic Brian, Armitage Thomas, Arnault Sabine, Artana Camila, Aulicino Giuseppe, Ayoub Nadia, Badulin Sergei, Baker Steven, Banks Chris, Bao Lifeng, Barbetta Silvia, Barcelo-Llull Barbara, Barlier Francois, Basu Sujit, Bauer-Gottwein Peter, Becker Matthias, Beckley Brian, Bellefond Nicole, Belonenko Tatyana, Benkiran Mounir, Benkouider Touati, Bennartz Ralf, Benveniste Jerome, Bercher Nicolas, Berge-Nguyen Muriel, Bettencourt Joao, Blarel Fabien, Blazquez Alejandro, Blumstein Denis, Bonnefond Pascal, Borde Franck, Bouffard Jerome, Boy Francois, Boy Jean-Paul, Brachet Cedric, Brasseur Pierre, Braun Alexander, Brocca Luca, Brockley David, Brodeau Laurent, Brown Shannon, Bruinsma Sean, Bulczak Anna, Buzzard Sammie, Cahill Madeleine, Calmant Stephane, Calzas Michel, Camici Stefania, Cancet Mathilde, Capdeville Hugues, Carabajal Claudia Cristina, Carrere Loren, Cazenave Anny, Chassignet Eric P., Chauhan Prakash, Cherchali Selma, Chereskin Teresa, Cheymol Cecile, Ciani Daniele, Cipollini Paolo, Cirillo Francesca, Cosme Emmanuel, Coss Steve, Cotroneo Yuri, Cotton David, Couhert Alexandre, Coutin-Faye Sophie, Cretaux Jean-Francois, Cyr Frederic, D'Ovidio Francesco, Darrozes Jose, David Cedric, Dayoub Nadim, de Staerke Danielle, Deng Xiaoli, Desai Shailen, Desjonqueres Jean-Damien, Dettmering Denise, Di Bella Alessandro, Diaz-Barroso Lara, Dibarboure Gerald, Dieng Habib Boubacar, Dinardo Salvatore, Dobslaw Henryk, Dodet Guillaume, Doglioli Andrea, Domeneghetti Alessio, Donahue David, Dong Shenfu, Donlon Craig, Dorandeu Joel, Drezen Christine, Drinkwater Mark, Du Penhoat Yves, Dushaw Brian, Egido Alejandro, Erofeeva Svetlana, Escudier Philippe, Esselborn Saskia, Exertier Pierre, Fablet Ronan, Falco Cedric, Farrell Sinead Louise, Faugere Yannice, Femenias Pierre, Fenoglio Luciana, Fernandes Joana, Gabriel Fernandez Juan, Ferrage Pascale, Ferrari Ramiro, Fichen Lionel, Filippucci Paolo, Flampouris Stylianos, Fleury Sara, Fornari Marco, Forsberg Rene, Frappart Frederic, Frery Marie-Laure, Garcia Pablo, Garcia-Mondejar Albert, Gaudelli Julia, Gaultier Lucile, Getirana Augusto, Gibert Ferran, Gil Artur, Gilbert Lin, Gille Sarah, Giulicchi Luisella, Gomez-Enri Jesus, Gomez-Navarro Laura, Gommenginger Christine, Gourdeau Lionel, Griffin David, Groh Andreas, Guerin Alexandre, Guerrero Raul, Guinle Thierry, Gupta Praveen, Gutknecht Benjamin D., Hamon Mathieu, Han Guoqi, Hauser Daniele, Helm Veit, Hendricks Stefan, Hernandez Fabrice, Hogg Anna, Horwath Martin, Idzanovic Martina, Janssen Peter, Jeansou Eric, Jia Yongjun, Jia Yuanyuan, Jiang Liguang, Johannessen Johnny A., Kamachi Masafumi, Karimova Svetlana, Kelly Kathryn, Kim Sung Yong, King Robert, Kittel Cecile M. 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