Sediment archives reveal irreversible shifts in plankton communities after World War II and agricultural pollution

Type Article
Date 2021-06
Language English
Author(s) Siano RaffaeleORCID1, Lassudrie Duchesne MalwennORCID2, Cuzin Pierre3, Briant NicolasORCID4, Loizeau VeroniqueORCID5, Schmidt Sabine6, Ehrhold AxelORCID7, Mertens KennethORCID2, Lambert Clément8, Quintric Laure3, Noël Cyril3, Latimier Marie1, Quéré Julien1, Durand Patrick3, Penaud Aurélie9
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, DYNECO, 29280 Plouzané, France
2 : Ifremer, LITTORAL LER BO, Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, BP40537, 29900 Concarneau Cedex, France
3 : Ifremer, SeBiMER, 29280 Plouzané, France
4 : Ifremer, BE, 44311 Nantes, France
5 : Ifremer, PFOM, 29280 Plouzané, France
6 : CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, France
7 : Ifremer, GM, 29280 Plouzané, France
8 : UMR 6538 Laboratoire Géosciences Océan (LGO), Université de Bretagne Sud (UBS), 56000 Vannes, France
9 : CNRS, UMR 6538 Laboratoire Géosciences Océan (LGO), Université de Brest (UBO), 29280 Plouzané, France
Source Current Biology (0960-9822) (Elsevier BV), 2021-06 , Vol. 31 , N. 12 , P. 2682-2689.e7
DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.079
WOS© Times Cited 5
Abstract

To evaluate the stability and resilience1 of coastal ecosystem communities to perturbations that occurred during the Anthropocene,2 pre-industrial biodiversity baselines inferred from paleoarchives are needed.3,4 The study of ancient DNA (aDNA) from sediments (sedaDNA)5 has provided valuable information about past dynamics of microbial species6, 7, 8 and communities9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 in relation to ecosystem variations. Shifts in planktonic protist communities might significantly affect marine ecosystems through cascading effects,19, 20, 21 and therefore the analysis of this compartment is essential for the assessment of ecosystem variations. Here, sediment cores collected from different sites of the Bay of Brest (northeast Atlantic, France) allowed ca. 1,400 years of retrospective analyses of the effects of human pollution on marine protists. Comparison of sedaDNA extractions and metabarcoding analyses with different barcode regions (V4 and V7 18S rDNA) revealed that protist assemblages in ancient sediments are mainly composed of species known to produce resting stages. Heavy-metal pollution traces in sediments were ascribed to the World War II period and coincided with community shifts within dinoflagellates and stramenopiles. After the war and especially from the 1980s to 1990s, protist genera shifts followed chronic contaminations of agricultural origin. Community composition reconstruction over time showed that there was no recovery to a Middle Ages baseline composition. This demonstrates the irreversibility of the observed shifts after the cumulative effect of war and agricultural pollutions. Developing a paleoecological approach, this study highlights how human contaminations irreversibly affect marine microbial compartments, which contributes to the debate on coastal ecosystem preservation and restoration.

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Siano Raffaele, Lassudrie Duchesne Malwenn, Cuzin Pierre, Briant Nicolas, Loizeau Veronique, Schmidt Sabine, Ehrhold Axel, Mertens Kenneth, Lambert Clément, Quintric Laure, Noël Cyril, Latimier Marie, Quéré Julien, Durand Patrick, Penaud Aurélie (2021). Sediment archives reveal irreversible shifts in plankton communities after World War II and agricultural pollution. Current Biology, 31(12), 2682-2689.e7. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.079 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00690/80195/