Productivity and Change in Fish and Squid in the Southern Ocean

Type Article
Date 2021-06
Language English
Author(s) Caccavo Jilda Alicia1, 2, 3, Christiansen Henrik4, Constable Andrew J.5, 6, Ghigliotti Laura7, Trebilco Rowan6, 8, Brooks Cassandra M.9, Cotte Cedric10, Desvignes Thomas11, Dornan Tracey12, 13, Jones Christopher D.14, Koubbi Philippe15, 16, Saunders Ryan A.12, Strobel Anneli1, Vacchi Marino7, Van De Putte Anton P.17, 18, Walters Andrea12, 19, Waluda Claire M., Woods Briannyn L.19, Xavier José C.12, 20
Affiliation(s) 1 : Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
2 : Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research, Berlin, Germany
3 : Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
4 : Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
5 : Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, TAS, Australia
6 : Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
7 : Institute for the Study of the Anthropic Impacts and the Sustainability in the Marine Environment (IAS), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Genoa, Italy
8 : Oceans and Atmosphere, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart, TAS, Australia
9 : Environmental Studies Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States
10 : LOCEAN Laboratory, Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, University Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, Paris, France
11 : Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States
12 : British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
13 : School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
14 : Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States
15 : UFR 918 Terre Environnement Biodiversité, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
16 : Channel and North Sea Fisheries Research Unit, IFREMER, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
17 : Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium
18 : Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium
19 : Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
20 : Department of Life Sciences, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Source Frontiers In Ecology And Evolution (2296-701X) (Frontiers Media SA), 2021-06 , Vol. 9 , P. 624918 (25p.)
DOI 10.3389/fevo.2021.624918
WOS© Times Cited 5
Keyword(s) marine ecosystem assessment, climate change, conservation management, Antarctic, fisheries, notothenioids, myctophids, squid

Southern Ocean ecosystems are globally important and vulnerable to global drivers of change, yet they remain challenging to study. Fish and squid make up a significant portion of the biomass within the Southern Ocean, filling key roles in food webs from forage to mid-trophic species and top predators. They comprise a diverse array of species uniquely adapted to the extreme habitats of the region. Adaptations such as antifreeze glycoproteins, lipid-retention, extended larval phases, delayed senescence, and energy-conserving life strategies equip Antarctic fish and squid to withstand the dark winters and yearlong subzero temperatures experienced in much of the Southern Ocean. In addition to krill exploitation, the comparatively high commercial value of Antarctic fish, particularly the lucrative toothfish, drives fisheries interests, which has included illegal fishing. Uncertainty about the population dynamics of target species and ecosystem structure and function more broadly has necessitated a precautionary, ecosystem approach to managing these stocks and enabling the recovery of depleted species. Fisheries currently remain the major local driver of change in Southern Ocean fish productivity, but global climate change presents an even greater challenge to assessing future changes. Parts of the Southern Ocean are experiencing ocean-warming, such as the West Antarctic Peninsula, while other areas, such as the Ross Sea shelf, have undergone cooling in recent years. These trends are expected to result in a redistribution of species based on their tolerances to different temperature regimes. Climate variability may impair the migratory response of these species to environmental change, while imposing increased pressures on recruitment. Fisheries and climate change, coupled with related local and global drivers such as pollution and sea ice change, have the potential to produce synergistic impacts that compound the risks to Antarctic fish and squid species. The uncertainty surrounding how different species will respond to these challenges, given their varying life histories, environmental dependencies, and resiliencies, necessitates regular assessment to inform conservation and management decisions. Urgent attention is needed to determine whether the current management strategies are suitably precautionary to achieve conservation objectives in light of the impending changes to the ecosystem.

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Caccavo Jilda Alicia, Christiansen Henrik, Constable Andrew J., Ghigliotti Laura, Trebilco Rowan, Brooks Cassandra M., Cotte Cedric, Desvignes Thomas, Dornan Tracey, Jones Christopher D., Koubbi Philippe, Saunders Ryan A., Strobel Anneli, Vacchi Marino, Van De Putte Anton P., Walters Andrea, Waluda Claire M., Woods Briannyn L., Xavier José C. (2021). Productivity and Change in Fish and Squid in the Southern Ocean. Frontiers In Ecology And Evolution, 9, 624918 (25p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :