Cyst-theca relationships of Spiniferites bentorii, S. hyperacanthus, S. ramosus, S. scabratus and molecular phylogenetics of Spiniferites and Tectatodinium (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae)

Type Article
Date 2021-07
Language English
Author(s) Gu HaifengORCID1, Huo Kai1, Krock Bernd2, Bilien GwenaelORCID3, Pospelova Vera4, Li Zhen5, Carbonell-Moore ConsueloORCID6, Morquecho Lourdes7, Ninčević Živana8, Mertens KennethORCID3
Affiliation(s) 1 : Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, Fujian, 361005, China
2 : Department of Ecological Chemistry, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven, D-27570, Germany
3 : Station de Biologie Marine, Ifremer, LITTORAL, Place de la Croix, BP40537, 29900 Concarneau CEDEX, France
4 : Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
5 : Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
6 : Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2902, USA
7 : Department of Environmental Planning and Conservation, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Av. IPN #195, Playa Palo de Sta. Rita Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur, 23096, Mexico
8 : Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (IOF), Šetalište I. Meštrovića 63, Split, 21000, Croatia
Source Phycologia (0031-8884) (Informa UK Limited), 2021-07 , Vol. 60 , N. 4 , P. 332-353
DOI 10.1080/00318884.2021.1930796
WOS© Times Cited 9
Keyword(s) Dinoflagellates, Gonyaulax nezaniae, Gonyaulax spinifera, Tectatodinium pellitum

It is well known that modern resting cysts with morphologies matching those of species of the fossil genus Spiniferites germinate into motile cells of the genus Gonyaulax. Different Spiniferites species have been connected to a single Gonyaulax species, raising the question of whether they are over-classified. Through germination experiments of cysts with the morphological features of four species of Spiniferites, viz. S. bentorii, S. hyperacanthus, S. ramosus and S. scabratus, we established cyst-theca relationships. Cysts with the morphology of S. bentorii gave rise to vegetative, motile cells of Gonyaulax nezaniae sp. nov., which is characterized by two stout antapical spines. Cysts with S. hyperacanthus and S. ramosus morphologies germinated into Gonyaulax whaseongensis and G. spinifera, respectively. Cysts with S. scabratus morphology lacked a ventral pore and were attributed to Gonyaulax cf. spinifera. Gene sequences for SSU, LSU and/or ITS-5.8S rRNA were obtained from these four species, and from cysts with the morphology of Spiniferites belerius, S. mirabilis, S. lazus, Spiniferites cf. bentorii and Tectatodinium pellitum. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on LSU and SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that cysts assignable to Spiniferites formed a polyphyletic group, intermingled with Tectatodinium, Bitectatodinium, Ataxiodinium and Impagidinium, whereas Gonyaulax species appeared as monophyletic. From our results we inferred the phylogenetic positions of S. bentorii, S. mirabilis, S. lazus, S. scabratus, Tectatodinium pellitum and Gonyaulax digitale for the first time, supporting the idea that Spiniferites species are not over-classified and each of them may correspond to different Gonyaulax species.

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Gu Haifeng, Huo Kai, Krock Bernd, Bilien Gwenael, Pospelova Vera, Li Zhen, Carbonell-Moore Consuelo, Morquecho Lourdes, Ninčević Živana, Mertens Kenneth (2021). Cyst-theca relationships of Spiniferites bentorii, S. hyperacanthus, S. ramosus, S. scabratus and molecular phylogenetics of Spiniferites and Tectatodinium (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia, 60(4), 332-353. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :