Balancing between Artemia and microdiet usage for normal skeletal development in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )
|Author(s)||Printzi Aliki1, 2, Kourkouta Chara1, Fragkoulis Stefanos1, Dimitriadi Anastasia1, Geladakis George1, Orfanakis Michail1, Mazurais David2, Zambonino Infante Jose-Luis2, Koumoundouros George1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Biology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
2 : IFREMER, Univ BrestCNRSIRDLEMAR Plouzané, France
|Source||Journal Of Fish Diseases (0140-7775) (Wiley), 2021-11 , Vol. 44 , N. 11 , P. 1689-1696|
|WOS© Times Cited||1|
|Keyword(s)||feeding, fish larvae, skeletal abnormalities, welfare|
Targeting in zebrafish fast growth, high survival rates and improved reproductive performance has led over the last years in variable feeding regimes between different facilities. Despite its significance on fish function and welfare, normal skeletal development has rarely been evaluated in establishing the best feeding practices for zebrafish. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for normal skeletal development, growth and survival of zebrafish larvae through live feed-to-microdiet transition at an appropriate rate. Four feeding regimes including feeding exclusively on Artemia nauplii (A) or dry microdiet (D), and feeding on both Artemia and microdiet at two different transition rates (slow (B) or fast (C)) were applied from 5 to 24 dpf (days post-fertilization). Results demonstrated a significant effect of feeding regimes on the incidence of skeletal abnormalities (gill cover, fins and vertebral column, p < .05) in zebrafish larvae. The A and B experimental groups presented the highest (88 ± 3 and 84 ± 17%, respectively), but the C and D the lowest (18 ± 14 and 11 ± 2%, respectively), rates of normal fish (fish without any abnormality). Similarly, growth rate was comparatively elevated in A and B groups. No significant differences were observed in fish survival between A, B and C groups. However, D group presented a significantly lower survival rate. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the live feed-to-microdiet transition rate influences larval growth, survival and abnormality rates in a non-homogenous pattern.