Gonadal transcriptomes associated with sex phenotypes provide potential male and female candidate genes of sex determination or early differentiation in Crassostrea gigas, a sequential hermaphrodite mollusc
|Author(s)||Broquard Coralie1, 2, 3, Saowaros Suwansa-Ard4, 5, Lepoittevin Mélanie1, 2, Degremont Lionel3, Lamy Jean-Baptiste3, Morga Benjamin3, Elizur Abigail, Martinez Anne-Sophie1, 2, 5|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Normandie University, UNICAEN, CNRS, BOREA, 14000, Caen, France
2 : Laboratoire de Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques (BOREA), Université de Caen Normandie, MNHN, SU, UA, CNRS, IRD, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, 14032, Cedex 05, Caen, France
3 : Ifremer, RBE-SG2M-LGPMM, La Tremblade, France
4 : Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
5 : Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia
|Source||Bmc Genomics (1471-2164) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2021-08 , Vol. 22 , N. 1 , P. 609 (16p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||4|
|Keyword(s)||RNA-Seq, Gonad transcriptome, Early sex differentiation, Sex determination, Irregular hermaphrodite, Oyster|
In the animal kingdom, mollusca is an important phylum of the Lophotrochozoa. However, few studies have investigated the molecular cascade of sex determination/early gonadal differentiation within this phylum. The oyster Crassostrea gigas is a sequential irregular hermaphrodite mollusc of economic, physiological and phylogenetic importance. Although some studies identified genes of its sex-determining/−differentiating pathway, this particular topic remains to be further deepened, in particular with regard to the expression patterns. Indeed, these patterns need to cover the entire period of sex lability and have to be associated to future sex phenotypes, usually impossible to establish in this sequential hermaphrodite. This is why we performed a gonadal RNA-Seq analysis of diploid male and female oysters that have not changed sex for 4 years, sampled during the entire time-window of sex determination/early sex differentiation (stages 0 and 3 of the gametogenetic cycle). This individual long-term monitoring gave us the opportunity to explain the molecular expression patterns in the light of the most statistically likely future sex of each oyster.
The differential gene expression analysis of gonadal transcriptomes revealed that 9723 genes were differentially expressed between gametogenetic stages, and 141 between sexes (98 and 43 genes highly expressed in females and males, respectively). Eighty-four genes were both stage- and sex-specific, 57 of them being highly expressed at the time of sex determination/early sex differentiation. These 4 novel genes including Trophoblast glycoprotein-like, Protein PML-like, Protein singed-like and PREDICTED: paramyosin, while being supported by RT-qPCR, displayed sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns.
This gonadal transcriptome analysis, the first one associated with sex phenotypes in C. gigas, revealed 57 genes highly expressed in stage 0 or 3 of gametogenesis and which could be linked to the future sex of the individuals. While further study will be needed to suggest a role for these factors, some could certainly be original potential actors involved in sex determination/early sex differentiation, like paramyosin and could be used to predict the future sex of oysters.