Toxicity Screening of a Gambierdiscus australes Strain from the Western Mediterranean Sea and Identification of a Novel Maitotoxin Analogue

Type Article
Date 2021-08
Language English
Author(s) Estevez PabloORCID1, Castro David1, Leão-Martins José ManuelORCID1, Sibat ManoellaORCID2, Tudó AngelsORCID3, Dickey Robert4, Diogene JorgeORCID3, Hess PhilippORCID2, Gago-Martinez Ana1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Biomedical Research Centre (CINBIO), Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2 : Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Ifremer, Rue de l’Île d’Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
3 : Marine and Continental Waters Programme, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologies Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou, km. 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain
4 : Department of Marine Science, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, TX 78373, USA
Source Marine Drugs (1660-3397) (MDPI AG), 2021-08 , Vol. 19 , N. 8 , P. 460 (19p.)
DOI 10.3390/md19080460
WOS© Times Cited 16
Note This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Marine Toxins Detection and Quantification
Keyword(s) N2a, LC-MS, MS, LC-HRMS, maitotoxin, ciguatoxin, ciguatera poisoning

Dinoflagellate species of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa are known to produce ciguatera poisoning-associated toxic compounds, such as ciguatoxins, or other toxins, such as maitotoxins. However, many species and strains remain poorly characterized in areas where they were recently identified, such as the western Mediterranean Sea. In previous studies carried out by our research group, a G. australes strain from the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea) presenting MTX-like activity was characterized by LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS detecting 44-methyl gambierone and gambieric acids C and D. However, MTX1, which is typically found in some G. australes strains from the Pacific Ocean, was not detected. Therefore, this study focuses on the identification of the compound responsible for the MTX-like toxicity in this strain. The G. australes strain was characterized not only using LC-MS instruments but also N2a-guided HPLC fractionation. Following this approach, several toxic compounds were identified in three fractions by LC-MS/MS and HRMS. A novel MTX analogue, named MTX5, was identified in the most toxic fraction, and 44-methyl gambierone and gambieric acids C and D contributed to the toxicity observed in other fractions of this strain. Thus, G. australes from the Mediterranean Sea produces MTX5 instead of MTX1 in contrast to some strains of the same species from the Pacific Ocean. No CTX precursors were detected, reinforcing the complexity of the identification of CTXs precursors in these regions

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Estevez Pablo, Castro David, Leão-Martins José Manuel, Sibat Manoella, Tudó Angels, Dickey Robert, Diogene Jorge, Hess Philipp, Gago-Martinez Ana (2021). Toxicity Screening of a Gambierdiscus australes Strain from the Western Mediterranean Sea and Identification of a Novel Maitotoxin Analogue. Marine Drugs, 19(8), 460 (19p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :