In situ use of bivalves and passive samplers to reveal water contamination by microcystins along a freshwater-marine continuum in France

Type Article
Date 2021-10
Language English
Author(s) Lance EmilieORCID1, 2, Lepoutre Alexandra1, Savar Veronique3, Robert Elise3, Bormans Myriam4, Amzil ZouherORCID3
Affiliation(s) 1 : UMR-I 02 SEBIO, BP 1039, 51687 REIMS Cedex 2, France
2 : UMR MNHN/CNRS MCAM, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 75005 Paris
3 : Ifremer/Phycotoxins Laboratory, F-44311 Nantes, France
4 : UMR 6553 Ecobio, CNRS Univ Rennes, F-35000 RENNES, France
Source Water Research (0043-1354) (Elsevier BV), 2021-10 , Vol. 204 , P. 117620 (10p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117620
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) Cyanotoxins, Biosurvey, Molluscs, Solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT)

Cyanobacteria are a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health because of their ability to produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs). MCs are regularly monitored in fresh waters, but rarely in estuarine and marine waters despite the possibility of their downstream export. Over a period of two years, we monthly analysed intracellular (in phytoplankton) and extracellular (dissolved in water) MCs at five stations along a river continuum from a freshwater reservoir with ongoing cyanobacterial blooms to the coast of Brittany, France. MCs were quantified using two integrative samplers placed at each site: solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers for collecting extracellular MCs and caged mussels (Anodonta anatina and Mytilus edulis) filter-feeding on MC-producing cyanobacteria. The MC transfer was demonstrated each year during five months at estuarine sites and sporadically at the marine outlet. SPATT samplers integrated extracellular MCs, notably at low environmental concentrations (0.2 µg/L) and with the same variant profile as in water. The mussel A. anatina highlighted the presence of MCs including at intracellular concentrations below 1 µg/L. M. edulis more efficiently revealed the MC transfer at estuarine sites than punctual water samplings. Bivalves showed the same MC variant profile as phytoplankton samples, but with differential accumulation capacities between the variants and the two species. Using SPATT or bivalves can give a more accurate assessment of the contamination level of a freshwater-marine continuum, in which the MC transfer can be episodic. MC content in M. edulis represents a potent threat to human health if considering updated French guideline values, and particularly the total (free and protein-bound) MC content, highlighting the necessity to include cyanotoxins in the monitoring of seafood originating from estuarine areas.

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