Estimating tropical cyclone surface winds: Current status, emerging technologies, historical evolution, and a look to the future

Type Article
Date 2021-09
Language English
Author(s) Knaff John A.1, Sampson Charles R.2, Kucas Matthew3, Slocum Christopher J.1, Brennan Michael J.4, Meissner Thomas5, Ricciardulli Lucrezia5, Mouche Alexis6, Reul Nicolas6, Morris Mary7, Chirokova Galina8, Caroff Philippe9
Affiliation(s) 1 : NOAA/Center for Satellite Applications and Research, Fort Collins, CO, USA
2 : Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, USA
3 : Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, USA
4 : NOAA/NWS/NCEP National Hurricane Center, Miami, FL, USA
5 : Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA, USA
6 : Laboratoire d’Océanographie Physique et Spatiale, Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Brest, France
7 : NASA/Jet propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA
8 : Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Fort Collins, CO, USA
9 : Tropical Cyclone/Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, Météo France, Réunion, France
Source Tropical Cyclone Research And Review (2225-6032) (Elsevier BV), 2021-09 , Vol. 10 , N. 3 , P. 125-150
DOI 10.1016/j.tcrr.2021.09.002
Keyword(s) Tropical cyclone, Surface wind, Satellite, Best track, Operations
Abstract

This article provides a review of tropical cyclone (TC) surface wind estimation from an operational forecasting perspective. First, we provide a summary of operational forecast center practices and historical databases. Next, we discuss current and emerging objective estimates of TC surface winds, including algorithms, archive datasets, and individual algorithm strengths and weaknesses as applied to operational TC surface wind forecast parameters. Our review leads to recommendations about required surface coverage – an area covering at least 1100 km from center of TC at a 2-km resolution in the inner-core, and at a frequency of at least once every six hours. This is enough coverage to support a complete analysis of the TC surface wind field from center to the extent of the 34-kt (17 m s-1) winds at 6-h intervals. We also suggest future designs of TC surface wind capabilities include funding to ensure near real-time data delivery to operators so that operational evaluation and use are feasible within proposed budgets. Finally, we suggest that users of archived operational wind radii datasets contact operational organizations to ensure these datasets are appropriate for their needs as the datasets vary in quality through time and space, even from a single organization.

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Knaff John A., Sampson Charles R., Kucas Matthew, Slocum Christopher J., Brennan Michael J., Meissner Thomas, Ricciardulli Lucrezia, Mouche Alexis, Reul Nicolas, Morris Mary, Chirokova Galina, Caroff Philippe (2021). Estimating tropical cyclone surface winds: Current status, emerging technologies, historical evolution, and a look to the future. Tropical Cyclone Research And Review, 10(3), 125-150. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcrr.2021.09.002 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00723/83460/