Tetrodotoxins in French Bivalve Mollusks—Analytical Methodology, Environmental Dynamics and Screening of Bacterial Strain Collections

Type Article
Date 2021-11
Language English
Author(s) Réveillon DamienORCID1, Savar Veronique1, Schaefer Estelle1, Chevé Julien2, Halm-Lemeille Marie-PierreORCID3, Hervio-Heath DominiqueORCID4, 5, Travers Marie-AgnesORCID6, 7, Abadie EricORCID8, 9, Rolland Jean-LucORCID7, 9, Hess PhilippORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, DYNECO, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, F-44000 Nantes, France
2 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, F-35800 Dinard, France
3 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, F-14520 Port en Bessin, France
4 : LEMAR, Université de Brest, Ifremer, CNRS, IRD, F-29280 Plouzané, France
5 : Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratoire LSEM, F-29280 Plouzané, France
6 : Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratoire LGPMM, F-17390 La Tremblade, France
7 : IHPE, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, F-34000 Montpellier, France
8 : Ifremer, Biodivenv, F-97231 Le Robert, France
9 : MARBEC, Université de Montpellier, IRD, Ifremer, CNRS, F-34000 Montpellier, France
Source Toxins (2072-6651) (MDPI AG), 2021-11 , Vol. 13 , N. 11 , P. 740 (18p.)
DOI 10.3390/toxins13110740
WOS© Times Cited 11
Note This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins and Food Safety
Keyword(s) emerging toxins, TTXs, REPHY, REMI, coastal and seafood contamination

Tetrodotoxins (TTXs) are potentially lethal paralytic toxins that have been identified in European shellfish over recent years. Risk assessment has suggested comparatively low levels (44 µg TTX-equivalent/kg) but stresses the lack of data on occurrence. Both bacteria and dinoflagellates were suggested as possible biogenic sources, either from an endogenous or exogenous origin. We thus investigated TTXs in (i) 98 shellfish samples and (ii) 122 bacterial strains, isolated from French environments. We optimized a method based on mass spectrometry, using a single extraction step followed by ultrafiltration without Solid Phase Extraction and matrix-matched calibration for both shellfish and bacterial matrix. Limits of detection and quantification were 6.3 and 12.5 µg/kg for shellfish and 5.0 and 10 µg/kg for bacterial matrix, respectively. Even though bacterial matrix resulted in signal enhancement, no TTX analog was detected in any strain. Bivalves (either Crassostrea gigas or Ruditapes philippinarum) were surveyed in six French production areas over 2.5–3 month periods (2018–2019). Concentrations of TTX ranged from ‘not detected’ to a maximum of 32 µg/kg (Bay of Brest, 17 June 2019), with events lasting 2 weeks at maximum. While these results are in line with previous studies, they provide new data of TTX occurrence and confirm that the link between bacteria, bivalves and TTX is complex

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Réveillon Damien, Savar Veronique, Schaefer Estelle, Chevé Julien, Halm-Lemeille Marie-Pierre, Hervio-Heath Dominique, Travers Marie-Agnes, Abadie Eric, Rolland Jean-Luc, Hess Philipp (2021). Tetrodotoxins in French Bivalve Mollusks—Analytical Methodology, Environmental Dynamics and Screening of Bacterial Strain Collections. Toxins, 13(11), 740 (18p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110740 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00730/84205/