Ocean Integration: The Needs and Challenges of Effective Coordination Within the Ocean Observing System

Type Article
Date 2022-01
Language English
Author(s) Révelard Adèle1, Tintoré Joaquín1, 2, Verron Jacques3, Bahurel Pierre4, Barth John A.5, Belbéoch Mathieu6, Benveniste Jérôme7, Bonnefond Pascal8, Chassignet Eric P.9, Cravatte Sophie10, Davidson Fraser11, Deyoung Brad12, Heupel Michelle13, Heslop Emma13, Hörstmann Cora14, Karstensen Johannes15, Le Traon Pierre-Yves4, 16, Marques Miguel17, McLean Craig18, Medina Raul19, Paluszkiewicz Theresa20, Pascual Ananda2, Pearlman Jay21, Petihakis George22, Pinardi Nadia23, Pouliquen SylvieORCID24, Rayner Ralph25, Shepherd Iian26, Sprintall Janet27, Tanhua Toste15, Testor Pierre28, Seppälä Jukka29, Siddorn John30, Thomsen Soeren28, Valdés Luis31, Visbeck Martin15, 32, Waite Anya M.33, Werner Francisco34, Wilkin John35, Williams Ben36
Affiliation(s) 1 : Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB), Palma, Spain
2 : Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDEA) (CSIC-UIB), Esporles, Spain
3 : Ocean Next, Grenoble, France
4 : Mercator Ocean International, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
5 : College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States
6 : OceanOPS, Plouzané, France
7 : European Space Agency—ESRIN, Frascati, Italy
8 : Observatoire de Paris-SYRTE, Paris, France
9 : Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States
10 : LEGOS université de Toulouse, IRD, CNES, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France
11 : Fisheries and Oceans, St John’s, NL, Canada
12 : Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, Canada
13 : IOC UNESCO, Paris, France
14 : Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany
15 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
16 : Ifremer, ODE, Plouzané, France
17 : Blue Info by Skipper & Wool, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal
18 : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD, United States
19 : IHCantabria—Instituto de Hidráulica Ambiental de la Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
20 : Octopus Ocean Consulting LLC, Oak Hill, VA, United States
21 : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Paris, France
22 : Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), Heraklion, Greece
23 : Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
24 : Ifremer, IRSI, Plouzané, France
25 : London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom
26 : Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE), Bruxelles, Belgium
27 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
28 : CNRS-Sorbonne Universités (Campus Pierre et Marie Curie)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, UMR 7159, Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Climatologie (LOCEAN), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Observatoire Ecce Terra, Paris, France
29 : Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland
30 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
31 : Instituto Español de Oceanografía, C.O. de Santander, Santander, Spain
32 : Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany
33 : Ocean Frontier Institute and Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
34 : NOAA Fisheries, Silver Spring, MD, United States
35 : Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, United States
36 : Fugro, Houston, TX, United States
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2022-01 , Vol. 8 , P. 737671 (15p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2021.737671
Keyword(s) integration, ocean observing, organizational silos, interdisciplinarity, collaboration, ocean science culture, ocean governance and management, coordination

Understanding and sustainably managing complex environments such as marine ecosystems benefits from an integrated approach to ensure that information about all relevant components and their interactions at multiple and nested spatiotemporal scales are considered. This information is based on a wide range of ocean observations using different systems and approaches. An integrated approach thus requires effective collaboration between areas of expertise in order to improve coordination at each step of the ocean observing value chain, from the design and deployment of multi-platform observations to their analysis and the delivery of products, sometimes through data assimilation in numerical models. Despite significant advances over the last two decades in more cooperation across the ocean observing activities, this integrated approach has not yet been fully realized. The ocean observing system still suffers from organizational silos due to independent and often disconnected initiatives, the strong and sometimes destructive competition across disciplines and among scientists, and the absence of a well-established overall governance framework. Here, we address the need for enhanced organizational integration among all the actors of ocean observing, focusing on the occidental systems. We advocate for a major evolution in the way we collaborate, calling for transformative scientific, cultural, behavioral, and management changes. This is timely because we now have the scientific and technical capabilities as well as urgent societal and political drivers. The ambition of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) and the various efforts to grow a sustainable ocean economy and effective ocean protection efforts all require a more integrated approach to ocean observing. After analyzing the barriers that currently prevent this full integration within the occidental systems, we suggest nine approaches for breaking down the silos and promoting better coordination and sharing. These recommendations are related to the organizational framework, the ocean science culture, the system of recognition and rewards, the data management system, the ocean governance structure, and the ocean observing drivers and funding. These reflections are intended to provide food for thought for further dialogue between all parties involved and trigger concrete actions to foster a real transformational change in ocean observing.

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Révelard Adèle, Tintoré Joaquín, Verron Jacques, Bahurel Pierre, Barth John A., Belbéoch Mathieu, Benveniste Jérôme, Bonnefond Pascal, Chassignet Eric P., Cravatte Sophie, Davidson Fraser, Deyoung Brad, Heupel Michelle, Heslop Emma, Hörstmann Cora, Karstensen Johannes, Le Traon Pierre-Yves, Marques Miguel, McLean Craig, Medina Raul, Paluszkiewicz Theresa, Pascual Ananda, Pearlman Jay, Petihakis George, Pinardi Nadia, Pouliquen Sylvie, Rayner Ralph, Shepherd Iian, Sprintall Janet, Tanhua Toste, Testor Pierre, Seppälä Jukka, Siddorn John, Thomsen Soeren, Valdés Luis, Visbeck Martin, Waite Anya M., Werner Francisco, Wilkin John, Williams Ben (2022). Ocean Integration: The Needs and Challenges of Effective Coordination Within the Ocean Observing System. Frontiers In Marine Science, 8, 737671 (15p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.737671 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00747/85900/