Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of human Salmonella enterica in Bangui, Central African Republic, from 2004 to 2013

Type Article
Date 2019-12
Language English
Author(s) Breurec SebastienORCID1, 2, Reynau Yann3, Frank Thierry1, Farra Alain1, Costilhes Geoffrey4, Weill François-Xavier4, Le Hello Simon4
Affiliation(s) 1 : Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Institut Pasteur, Bangui, Central African Republic, Unité Transmission, Réservoir et Diversité des Pathogènes, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Les Abymes, France, Faculté de Médecine Hyacinthe Bastaraud, Université des Antilles, Pointe-à-Pitre, France
2 : Laboratoire de Microbiologie clinique et environnementale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Pointe-à-Pitre/les Abymes, Pointe-à-Pitre, France
3 : Unité Transmission, Réservoir et Diversité des Pathogènes, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Les Abymes, France
4 : Unité des Bactéries Pathogènes Entériques, Centre National de Référence des Escherichia coli, Shigella et Salmonella, World Health Organization Collaborative Centre for typing and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Source PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (1935-2735) (Public Library of Science (PLoS)), 2019-12 , Vol. 13 , N. 12 , P. e0007917 (13p.)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007917
WOS© Times Cited 10
Abstract

Background

Limited epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance data are available on Salmonella enterica from sub-Saharan Africa. We determine the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in isolates in the Central African Republic (CAR) between 2004 and 2013 and the genetic basis for resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (C3G).

Methodology/Principal findings

 

A total of 582 non-duplicate human clinical isolates were collected. The most common serotype was Typhimurium (n = 180, 31% of the isolates). A randomly selected subset of S. Typhimurium isolates were subtyped by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphism (CRISPOL) typing. All but one invasive isolate tested (66/68, 96%) were associated with sequence type 313. Overall, the rates of resistance were high to traditional first-line drugs (18–40%) but low to many other antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones (one resistant isolate) and C3G (only one ESBL-producing isolate). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolate and three additional ESBL isolates from West Africa were studied by whole genome sequencing. The blaCTX-M-15 gene and the majority of antimicrobial resistance genes found in the ESBL isolate were present in a large conjugative IncHI2 plasmid highly similar (> 99% nucleotide identity) to ESBL-carrying plasmids found in Kenya (S. Typhimurium ST313) and also in West Africa (serotypes Grumpensis, Havana, Telelkebir and Typhimurium).

Conclusions/Significance

 

Although the prevalence of ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was low in CAR, we found that a single IncHI2 plasmid-carrying blaCTX-M-15 was widespread among Salmonella serotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, which is of concern.

Author summary

Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in sub-Saharan Africa and associated with a high mortality rate. Levels of multidrug resistance have become alarmingly high. Then, third-generation cephalosporin (C3G) and fluoroquinolones have become standard for first-line empirical treatment. Recently, C3G-resistant Salmonella populations have emerged and spread over all continents. This resistance is mainly mediated by acquired extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes carried by mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. We report here the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in isolates in the Central African Republic (CAR) between 2004 and 2013 and the genetic basis for resistance to C3G. Overall, resistance rates to antimicrobials were low during the study period, for all classes other than conventional antimicrobials, confirming recommendations for first-line treatment based on C3G and fluoroquinolones. Only one ESBL-producing isolate was recovered. The ESBL gene and the majority of antimicrobial resistance genes found were present in a large plasmid highly similar to ESBL-carrying plasmids found in East and West Africa, highlighting its significant role in the spread of ESBL genes in Salmonella isolates in sub-Saharan Africa. These finding have implications for treatment of salmonellosis and support the growing necessity for increased microbiological surveillance based on networks of clinical laboratories in order to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates.

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How to cite 

Breurec Sebastien, Reynau Yann, Frank Thierry, Farra Alain, Costilhes Geoffrey, Weill François-Xavier, Le Hello Simon (2019). Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of human Salmonella enterica in Bangui, Central African Republic, from 2004 to 2013. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13(12), e0007917 (13p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007917 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00771/88307/