Development of harmful algal blooms species responsible for lipophilic and amnesic shellfish poisoning intoxications in southwestern Mediterranean coastal waters

Type Article
Date 2022-11
Language English
Author(s) Aboualaalaa Hicham1, 2, 5, L'Bachir El Kbiach Mohammed1, Rijal Leblad BenlahcenORCID2, Hervé FabienneORCID4, Hormat-Allah Amal2, Baudy Lauriane4, Ennaskhi Ismail2, Hammi Ikram2, Ibghi Mustapha1, 2, 5, Elmortaji Hind3, Abadie EricORCID6, Rolland Jean-LucORCID6, Amzil ZouherORCID4, Laabir Mohamed5
Affiliation(s) 1 : Equipe de Biotechnologie Végétale, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University Tetouan, Morocco
2 : INRH (Moroccan Institute of Fisheries Research), Marine Environment Monitoring Laboratory, Tangier, Morocco
3 : INRH (Moroccan Institute of Fisheries Research), Marine Biotoxins Laboratory, Casablanca, Morocco
4 : Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea), PHYTOX, METALG Laboratory, Nantes, France
5 : Université Montpellier, MARBEC CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Montpellier, France
6 : MARBEC, Université Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Sète, France
Source Toxicon (0041-0101) (Elsevier BV), 2022-11 , Vol. 219 , P. 106916 (16p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.toxicon.2022.09.002
WOS© Times Cited 4
Keyword(s) Southwestern mediterranean, Lipophilic and amnesic toxins, Environmental factors, HABs, Mollusk ?s contamination, LC-MS/MS analyses

Mediterranean waters have undergone environmental changes during the last decades leading to various modifications of the structure of phytoplankton populations, especially Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) species. Monitoring of the potentially toxic phytoplankton species was carried out biweekly in the western Mediterranean coast of Morocco from March 2018 to March 2019. Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LSTs) using LC-MS/MS and Domoic Acid (DA) using HPLC-UV were measured in the exploited mollusks, the cockle Acanthocardia tuberculata and the smooth clam Callista chione. We also determined the prevailing environmental factors in four surveyed sites (M'diq bay, Martil, Kaa Asras, and Djawn) selected to cover a variety of coastal ecosystems. Results showed that Pseudo-nitzschia spp. A DA producer species, was abundant with a pick of 50 × 103 cells l−1 on October 2018 in Djawn. Dinophysis caudata was the dominate Dinophysis species and showed a maximum density of 2200 cells l−1 on July in Djawn. Prorocentrum lima, an epibenthic dinoflagellate, appeared rarely in the water column with densities <80 cells l−1. Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum were found occasionally with a maximum density of 160 cells l−1. Karenia selliformis was detected only five times (<80 cells l−1) throughout the survey period. LC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of OA/DTX3, PTX-2, PTX-2 sa, and PTX-2 sa epi in the cockle at concentrations of up to 44.81 (OA/DTX-3+PTXs) ng g−1 meat. GYM-A was detected in the clam at concentrations of up to 4.22 ng g−1 meat. For the first time, AZAs and YTXs were detected in the southwestern Mediterranean with maximum values of 2.49 and 10.93 ng g−1 meat of cockle, respectively. DA was detected in moderate concentrations not exceeding 5.65 μg g−1 in both mollusks. Results showed that the observed toxic algae in the water column were responsible from the analysed toxins in the mollusks. It is likely that the southwestern Mediterranean waters could see the development of emergent species producing potent toxins (YTXs, AZAs, GYM-A). These dinoflagellates have to be isolated, ribotyped, and their toxin profiles determined.

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Aboualaalaa Hicham, L'Bachir El Kbiach Mohammed, Rijal Leblad Benlahcen, Hervé Fabienne, Hormat-Allah Amal, Baudy Lauriane, Ennaskhi Ismail, Hammi Ikram, Ibghi Mustapha, Elmortaji Hind, Abadie Eric, Rolland Jean-Luc, Amzil Zouher, Laabir Mohamed (2022). Development of harmful algal blooms species responsible for lipophilic and amnesic shellfish poisoning intoxications in southwestern Mediterranean coastal waters. Toxicon, 219, 106916 (16p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :