Current hypotheses to explain genetic chaos under the sea

Type Article
Date 2016-12
Language English
Author(s) Eldon BjarkiORCID1, Riquet Florentine2, 3, Yearsley JonORCID4, 5, Jollivet Didier6, 7, Broquet ThomasORCID7, 8
Affiliation(s) 1 : Museum Nat Kunde Berlin, Leibniz Inst Evolut & Biodiversitatsforsch, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.
2 : Univ Montpellier 2, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
3 : ISEM CNRS, UMR 5554, SMEL, 2 Rue Chantiers, F-34200 Sete, France.
4 : Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Biol & Environm Sci, Dublin 4, Ireland.
5 : Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Earth Inst, Dublin 4, Ireland.
6 : CNRS, Team Adaptat & Biol Invertebrates Extreme Environ, Stn Biol Roscoff, F-29680 Roscoff, France.
7 : Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Unite Mixte Rech 7144, F-29680 Roscoff, France.
8 : CNRS, Team Div & Connect Coastal Marine Landscapes, Stn Biol Roscoff, F-29680 Roscoff, France.
Source Current Zoology (1674-5507) (Oxford Univ Press), 2016-12 , Vol. 62 , N. 6 , P. 551-566
DOI 10.1093/cz/zow094
WOS© Times Cited 51
Keyword(s) asynchronous population dynamics, chaotic genetic patchiness, collective dispersal, kin aggregation, larval dispersal, multiple-merger coalescent, sweepstakes reproductive success

Chaotic genetic patchiness (CGP) refers to surprising patterns of spatial and temporal genetic structure observed in some marine species at a scale where genetic variation should be efficiently homogenized by gene flow via larval dispersal. Here we review and discuss 4 mechanisms that could generate such unexpected patterns: selection, sweepstakes reproductive success, collective dispersal, and temporal shifts in local population dynamics. First, we review examples where genetic differentiation at specific loci was driven by diversifying selection, which was historically the first process invoked to explain CGP. Second, we turn to neutral demographic processes that may drive genome-wide effects, and whose effects on CGP may be enhanced when they act together. We discuss how sweepstakes reproductive success accelerates genetic drift and can thus generate genetic structure, provided that gene flow is not too strong. Collective dispersal is another mechanism whereby genetic structure can be maintained regardless of dispersal intensity, because it may prevent larval cohorts from becoming entirely mixed. Theoretical analyses of both the sweepstakes and the collective dispersal ideas are presented. Finally, we discuss an idea that has received less attention than the other ones just mentioned, namely temporal shifts in local population dynamics.

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