Limited Transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae among Humans, Animals, and the Environment in a Caribbean Island, Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

Guadeloupe (French West Indies), a Caribbean island, is an ideal place to study the reservoirs of the Klebsiella pneumoniae species complex (KpSC) and identify the routes of transmission between human and nonhuman sources due to its insularity, small population size, and small area. Here, we report an analysis of 590 biological samples, 546 KpSC isolates, and 331 genome sequences collected between January 2018 and May 2019. The KpSC appears to be common whatever the source. Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates (21.4%) belonged to K. pneumoniae sensu stricto (phylogroup Kp1), and all but one were recovered from the hospital setting. The distribution of species and phylogroups across the different niches was clearly nonrandom, with a distinct separation of Kp1 and Klebsiella variicola (Kp3). The most frequent sequence types (STs) (≥5 isolates) were previously recognized as high-risk multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones, namely, ST17, ST307, ST11, ST147, ST152, and ST45. Only 8 out of the 63 STs (12.7%) associated with human isolates were also found in nonhuman sources. A total of 22 KpSC isolates were defined as hypervirulent: 15 associated with human infections (9.8% of all human isolates), 4 (8.9%) associated with dogs, and 3 (15%) associated with pigs. Most of the human isolates (33.3%) belonged to the globally successful sublineage CG23-I. ST86 was the only clone shared by a human and a nonhuman (dog) source. Our work shows the limited transmission of KpSC isolates between human and nonhuman sources and points to the hospital setting as a cornerstone of the spread of MDR clones and antibiotic resistance genes.

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Dereeper Alexis, Gruel Gaëlle, Pot Matthieu, Couvin David, Barbier Elodie, Bastian Sylvaine, Bambou Jean-Christophe, Gelu-Simeon Moana, Ferdinand Séverine, Guyomard-Rabenirina Stéphanie, Passet Virginie, Martino Frederic, Piveteau Pascal, Reynaud Yann, Rodrigues Carla, Roger Pierre-Marie, Roy Xavier, Talarmin Antoine, Tressieres Benoit, Valette Marc, Brisse Sylvain, Breurec Sébastien (2022). Limited Transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae among Humans, Animals, and the Environment in a Caribbean Island, Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Microbiology Spectrum. 10 (5). e01242-22 (15p.). https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01242-22, https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00800/91237/

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