Seasonal dynamics and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the northwestern Mediterranean deep convection region

Type Article
Date 2023-11
Language English
Author(s) Ulses Caroline1, Estournel Claude1, Marsaleix Patrick1, Soetaert Karline2, Fourrier MarineORCID3, Coppola Laurent3, 4, Lefèvre Dominique5, Touratier Franck6, Goyet Catherine6, Guglielmi Véronique6, Kessouri FayçalORCID7, Testor Pierre8, Durrieu De Madron Xavier9
Affiliation(s) 1 : Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS, Toulouse, France
2 : Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands
3 : Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV), Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
4 : Sorbonne Université, CNRS, OSU STAMAR, Paris, France
5 : Aix-Marseille Université, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
6 : IMAGES_ESPACE-DEV, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan, France
7 : Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA, USA
8 : CNRS-Sorbonne Universités (UPMC Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, UMR 7159, Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Climatologie (LOCEAN), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Observatoire Ecce Terra, Paris, France
9 : CEFREM, CNRS-Université de Perpignan, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860, Perpignan, France
Source Biogeosciences (1726-4170) (Copernicus GmbH), 2023-11 , Vol. 20 , N. 22 , P. 4683-4710
DOI 10.5194/bg-20-4683-2023

Deep convection plays a key role in the circulation, thermodynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, considered as a hotspot of biodiversity and climate change. In the framework of the DEWEX (Dense Water Experiment) project, the seasonal cycle and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep convection area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are investigated over the period September 2012–September 2013, using a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical-chemical modeling approach. We estimate that the northwestern Mediterranean Sea deep convection region was a moderate sink of CO2 for the atmosphere over the study period. The model results show the reduction of CO2 uptake during deep convection, and its increase during the abrupt spring phytoplankton bloom following the deep convection events. We highlight the dominant role of both biological and physical flows in the annual dissolved inorganic carbon budget. The upper layer of the northwestern deep convection region gained dissolved inorganic carbon through vertical physical supplies and, to a lesser extent, air-sea flux, and lost dissolved inorganic carbon through lateral transport and biological fluxes. The region, covering 2.5 % of the Mediterranean, acted as a source of dissolved inorganic carbon for the surface and intermediate water masses of the western and southern Western Mediterranean Sea and could contribute up to 10 and 20 % to the CO2 exchanges with the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

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Preprint - 10.5194/bg-2022-219 47 2 MB Open access
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Ulses Caroline, Estournel Claude, Marsaleix Patrick, Soetaert Karline, Fourrier Marine, Coppola Laurent, Lefèvre Dominique, Touratier Franck, Goyet Catherine, Guglielmi Véronique, Kessouri Fayçal, Testor Pierre, Durrieu De Madron Xavier (2023). Seasonal dynamics and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the northwestern Mediterranean deep convection region. Biogeosciences, 20(22), 4683-4710. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :