Seasonal Single-Site Sampling Reveals Large Diversity of Marine Algal Toxins in Coastal Waters and Shellfish of New Caledonia (Southwestern Pacific)

Type Article
Date 2023-11
Language English
Author(s) Sibat ManoellaORCID1, Mai Tepoerau2, 3, Tanniou Simon1, Biegala Isabelle4, Hess PhilippORCID1, Jauffrais ThierryORCID2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, ODE/PHYTOX/METALG, Rue de l’île d’Yeu, F-44300 Nantes, France
2 : Ifremer, IRD, Univ Nouvelle-Calédonie, Univ La Réunion, CNRS, UMR 9220 ENTROPIE, 98800 Nouméa, New Caledonia
3 : Institut Louis Malardé (ILM), 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
4 : Aix Marseille Univ, Université de Toulon, CNRS, IRD, MIO, UM110, 13288 Marseille, France
Source Toxins (2072-6651) (MDPI AG), 2023-11 , Vol. 15 , N. 11 , P. 642 (16p.)
DOI 10.3390/toxins15110642
Keyword(s) passive sampling, solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking, shellfish, mass spectrometry, New Caledonia, cyclic imine, diarrheic shellfish poisoning, azaspiracid, brevetoxin

Algal toxins pose a serious threat to human and coastal ecosystem health, even if their potential impacts are poorly documented in New Caledonia (NC). In this survey, bivalves and seawater (concentrated through passive samplers) from bays surrounding Noumea, NC, collected during the warm and cold seasons were analyzed for algal toxins using a multi-toxin screening approach. Several groups of marine microalgal toxins were detected for the first time in NC. Okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid-2 (AZA2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), pinnatoxin-G (PnTX-G), and homo-yessotoxin (homo-YTX) were detected in seawater at higher levels during the summer. A more diversified toxin profile was found in shellfish with brevetoxin-3 (BTX3), gymnodimine-A (GYM-A), and 13-desmethyl spirolide-C (SPX1), being confirmed in addition to the five toxin groups also found in seawater. Diarrhetic and neurotoxic toxins did not exceed regulatory limits, but PnTX-G was present at up to the limit of the threshold recommended by the French Food Safety Authority (ANSES, 23 μg kg−1). In the present study, internationally regulated toxins of the AZA-, BTX-, and OA-groups by the Codex Alimentarius were detected in addition to five emerging toxin groups, indicating that algal toxins pose a potential risk for the consumers in NC or shellfish export.

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Sibat Manoella, Mai Tepoerau, Tanniou Simon, Biegala Isabelle, Hess Philipp, Jauffrais Thierry (2023). Seasonal Single-Site Sampling Reveals Large Diversity of Marine Algal Toxins in Coastal Waters and Shellfish of New Caledonia (Southwestern Pacific). Toxins, 15(11), 642 (16p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :