How are cell and tissue structure and function influenced by gravity and what are the gravity perception mechanisms?

Progress in mechanobiology allowed us to better understand the important role of mechanical forces in the regulation of biological processes. Space research in the field of life sciences clearly showed that gravity plays a crucial role in biological processes. The space environment offers the unique opportunity to carry out experiments without gravity, helping us not only to understand the effects of gravitational alterations on biological systems but also the mechanisms underlying mechanoperception and cell/tissue response to mechanical and gravitational stresses. Despite the progress made so far, for future space exploration programs it is necessary to increase our knowledge on the mechanotransduction processes as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying microgravity-induced cell and tissue alterations. This white paper reports the suggestions and recommendations of the SciSpacE Science Community for the elaboration of the section of the European Space Agency roadmap “Biology in Space and Analogue Environments” focusing on “How are cells and tissues influenced by gravity and what are the gravity perception mechanisms?” The knowledge gaps that prevent the Science Community from fully answering this question and the activities proposed to fill them are discussed.

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Davis Trent, Tabury Kevin, Zhu Shouan, Angeloni Debora, Baatout Sarah, Benchoua Alexandra, Bereiter-Hahn Juergen, Bottai Daniele, Buchheim Judith-Irina, Calvaruso Marco, Carnero-Diaz Eugénie, Castiglioni Sara, Cavalieri Duccio, Ceccarelli Gabriele, Choukér Alexander, Cialdai Francesca, Ciofani Gianni, Coppola Giuseppe, Cusella Gabriella, Degl’innocenti Andrea, Desaphy Jean-Francois, Frippiat Jean-Pol, Gelinsky Michael, Genchi Giada, Grano Maria, Grimm Daniela, Guignandon Alain, Hahn Christiane, Hatton Jason, Herranz Raúl, Hellweg Christine E., Iorio Carlo Saverio, Karapantsios Thodoris, Van Loon Jack J.W.A., Lulli Matteo, Maier Jeanette, Malda Jos, Mamaca Emina, Morbidelli Lucia, Van Ombergen Angelique, Osterman Andreas, Ovsianikov Aleksandr, Pampaloni Francesco, Pavezlorie Elizabeth, Pereda-Campos Veronica, Przybyla Cyrille, Puhl Christopher, Rettberg Petra, Rizzo Angela Maria, Robson-Brown Kate, Rossi Leonardo, Russo Giorgio, Salvetti Alessandra, Santucci Daniela, Sperl Matthias, Tavella Sara, Thielemann Christiane, Willaert Ronnie, Szewczyk Nathaniel, Monici Monica (2024). How are cell and tissue structure and function influenced by gravity and what are the gravity perception mechanisms?. Npj Microgravity. 10 (1). 16 (7p.).,

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