New Perspective On The Haplosporidian Parasites Of Molluscs

Type Article
Date 2015-10
Language English
Author(s) Arzul IsabelleORCID1, Carnegie Ryan B.2
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, Lab Genet & Pathol, F-17390 La Tremblade, France.
2 : Coll William & Mary, Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
Source Journal Of Invertebrate Pathology (0022-2011) (Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science), 2015-10 , Vol. 131 , P. 32-42
DOI 10.1016/j.jip.2015.07.014
WOS© Times Cited 61
Note Pathogens and Disease Processes in Marine Molluscs
Keyword(s) Haplosporidium, Bonamia, Minchinia, MSX disease, Haplosporidiosis, Bonamiosis
Abstract The protist phylum Haplosporidia comprises over 40 described species with representatives infecting a range of mollusc hosts, including several ecologically and economically significant pathogens. Continuing exploration of haplosporidian diversity has added ten new species in recent years and brought the phylogenetics of the group into somewhat clearer focus, with monophyletic Bonamia and Minchinia lineages continuing to be supported. However, the addition of new sequences to phylogenetic analyses has left the paraphyletic genus Haplosporidium’s picture less resolved. It is not clear that even two genera will be enough to accommodate the species presently drawn to the Haplosporidium regions of the haplosporidian tree. In this review, we summarize recent findings in haplosporidian diversity and phylogenetics, and provide a synthesis of our understanding of the life cycles and environmental influences on haplosporidians, with particular emphasis on the important pathogens Haplosporidium nelsoni and Bonamia ostreae. Additionally, we consider the evolution of the “microcell haplosporidian” lifestyle of Bonamia parasites, and suggest that colonization of high-density oyster host populations in relatively stable euhaline marine environments may have been an important development favoring the evolution of the microcell haplosporidian life strategy.
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