A brief history of climate - the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming

Type Article
Date 2014-12-15
Language English
Author(s) Eldevik Tor1, 2, 3, Risebrobakken Bjorg2, Bjune Anne E.2, Andersson Carin2, Birks H. John B.2, 4, 8, 9, Dokken Trond M.2, Drange Helge1, 2, 3, Glessmer Mirjam S.1, 2, 3, Li Camille1, 3, Nilsen Jan Even O.2, 5, Ottera Odd Helge2, Richter Kristin6, Skagseth Oystein2, 7
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Bergen, Inst Geophys, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.
2 : Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
3 : Uni Res Climate, Bergen, Norway.
4 : Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.
5 : Nansen Environm & Remote Sensing Ctr, Bergen, Norway.
6 : Univ Innsbruck, Inst Meteorol & Geophys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
7 : Inst Marine Res, N-5024 Bergen, Norway.
8 : UCL, Environm Change Res Ctr, London, England.
9 : Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
Source Quaternary Science Reviews (0277-3791) (Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd), 2014-12-15 , Vol. 106 , P. 225-246
DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.028
WOS© Times Cited 58
Note Special issue Dating, Synthesis, and Interpretation of Palaeoclimatic Records and Model-data Integration: Advances of the INTIMATE project(INTegration of Ice core, Marine and TErrestrial records, COST Action ES0907)
Keyword(s) LGM-to-future, North Atlantic, Nordic seas, and Arctic, Climate, Marine, Terrestrial, Reconstruction, Observations, Climate model, Temperature, Thermohaline circulation
Abstract The understanding of climate and climate change is fundamentally concerned with two things: a well-defined and sufficiently complete climate record to be explained, for example of observed temperature, and a relevant mechanistic framework for making closed and consistent inferences concerning cause-and-effect. This is the case for understanding observed climate, as it is the case for historical climate as reconstructed from proxy data and future climate as projected by models. The present study offers a holistic description of northern maritime climate from the Last Glacial Maximum through to the projected global warming of the 21st century in this context. It includes the compilation of the most complete temperature record for Norway and the Norwegian Sea to date based on the synthesis of available terrestrial and marine paleoclimate reconstructions into continuous times series, and their continuation into modern and future climate with the instrumental record and a model projection. The scientific literature on a variable northern climate is reviewed against this background, and with a particular emphasis on the role of the Norwegian Atlantic Current the Gulf Stream's extension towards the Arctic. This includes the introduction of an explicit and relatively simple diagnostic relation to quantify the change in ocean circulation consistent with reconstructed ocean temperatures. It is found that maritime climate and the strength of the Norwegian Atlantic Current are closely related throughout the record. The nature of the relation is however qualitatively different as one progresses from the past, through the present, and into the future.
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Eldevik Tor, Risebrobakken Bjorg, Bjune Anne E., Andersson Carin, Birks H. John B., Dokken Trond M., Drange Helge, Glessmer Mirjam S., Li Camille, Nilsen Jan Even O., Ottera Odd Helge, Richter Kristin, Skagseth Oystein (2014). A brief history of climate - the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming. Quaternary Science Reviews, 106, 225-246. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.028 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00289/40031/